Indian Muslims: Past, Present and Future
The interaction between Islam and the Sub-continent begins with the Holy
Prophet's remark that there is a fragrant breeze coming from India. Within a few
years, a mosque was built at Cambay. The early Muslims were traders or
preachers. Islam's insistence on honesty in trade dealings and a rigorous moral
code appealed to local people. Ismaili preachers from Yemen were able to convert
sizable Brahmins and Rajputs in Gujarat.
This trend was
further boosted by Sufi saints, particularly Khawaja Moinuddin Chisti and Hazrat
Nizamudin Aulia. Most important the Islamic belief in the equality of all
mankind was a powerful attraction to Dalits and backward classes.
The second phase
begins around 1050 AD with raiders from Central Asia, coming through the North
West. They found a rich country; they loved the loot, but were soon Indianised
and stayed on to rule for over 650 years. It is this phase that passions the RSS,
and casts a long shadow over Hindu-Muslim relations. Today there are hardly any
Indian Muslims, with pure Arab or Central Asia blood. Most Muslims are
descendents of Dalits and backward caste converts. Their low standard of living
suggests that Muslim rule, gave them social equality, but failed to improve
their economic plight.
performing their traditional work. The old castes became the new jamaats. Inter
jamaat marriages are still rare, and can often lead to a violent reaction. I
made the mistake of asking a Syed, to consider the proposal for my America-based
son, for his daughter. The answer was short and brutal: get out. Islam could not
break the caste apparatus in India. These conversions have often resulted in odd
historical paradoxes. Narendra Modi is a Hindu Ghanchi. The Godhra accused are
Muslim Ghanchis. The forefathers of both, Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah may have
been in the same caste. The same is true of the poet Iqbal and the Nehrus. No
wonder India is the only region, in the arc from Morocco to Indonesia, to not
have a Muslim majority. It also proves that forced conversions were rare,
because of the Qur’anic injunction (2,256) "no force in religion".
association with the rulers gave the vast poor multitude, a sense of
empowerment. But the collapse of Muslim rule also brought with it a deep
insecurity, for both the nobility and the poor Muslims. The response was a turn
towards religion, and equally a rejection of all symbols of the new rulers.
Tragically this included English, science and modernity. Part of the current
Muslim alienation, anger and frustration is traceable to the unfortunate
responses of the past two hundred years. To close our eyes to the future, and
live the present in a fantasy of a glorious past, is an ideal concoction for
society disaster. Incidentally the worldwide Muslim anger against the West is
due to a similar historical phenomenon: the collapse of the Ottoman empire after
the First World War, and the colonization of almost all Muslim lands... Instead
of responding to the Western challenge by plunging into science and modernity,
Muslims withdrew into a shell. It was disgraceful that the great Syed Ahmed Khan
was roundly condemned for propagating modern education through the Aligarh
It is ironic that
a religion, whose very first command was ' Iqra ‘, meaning read; and where Allah
commands devotees in (20,14), 'Pray to the Lord, to increase you in knowledge';
has been so totally cut off from the pursuit of knowledge. There are no Muslim
Nobel prize winners in Physics, Chemistry and Medicine. Oddly the one exception
was Abdus Salaam, the Physics laureate, who belonged to the Ahmediya sect, which
the Pakistan Government declared as non-Muslim. The Prophet himself had a
passion for knowledge, asking his followers to 'go to China, if need be, to
acquire knowledge '. After the battle of Badr, he declared that a scholar ranks
higher than a martyr. One of his descendants, Jafar us Sadiq, declined the high
office of Caliph, stating that the quest of knowledge was paramount. Early
Islamic centuries saw a flowering of knowledge, unknown to the world before, in
fields as varied as medicine, astronomy, philosophy, law, music or chemistry
(the name comes from al-chemy or the science of converting other metals into
gold). While the rest of the world lay in the Dark Age, these scholars preserved
the best of Greek and Indian thought. India's discovery of the 'ZERO', was
combined with the ten numbers, to give the foundation of science and
mathematics. Avicenna, also called Ibn Sinna, born 980 AD, is considered the
greatest intellectual in the 1800 years between Aristotle and Leonardo da Vinci.
Muslims discovered al-gebra, and gave its name. Rather some of these scholars
became so involved in their subjects, that the clergy felt they were ignoring
Allah. Then suddenly disaster struck, with Halagu, a grandson of Genghis Khan
and a forefather of the Mughals, who ransacked and destroyed all the great
cities in 1254, and was particularly brutal on the libraries of Samarkand and
Baghdad. The ulema interpreted this tragedy as a sign of Allah's anger, for
devoting so much time and attention to issues other than Allah Himself. Muslims
were ordered to avoid mathematics, science and philosophy A curtain of darkness
came down over the Muslim world. Later there were great Muslim empires, such as
the Ottomans, the Persian and the Mughal. But none could revive that passion of
knowledge, which was a hallmark of the first 600 years of Islam.
dedicated souls have devoted their whole lives to rectify this serious
imbalance. Education societies are to be found in almost all Muslim areas in the
country. But the task is Herculean, more so because the ulema are focused
exclusively on religious education. Here too the method of teaching is to read
and recite the Holy Koran. But there is hardly any effort to understand its
content. Shockingly few Muslims can understand the very first Surah Fateha,
which is recited in every prayer. This Surah is so beautiful, moving, and
universal, that if imbibed in their lives, the identity crisis facing Muslims,
in India and the world, would almost disappear. How ironic, for the Holy Koran
is Allah's message to mankind. Even the Holy Prophet's principal title is 'the
education is necessary. Yet we have to realize that it heavily taxes the limited
resources of a poor community. Consider the Central Gujarat region. There are
about 23 Darul ulooms, the equivalent of a university, preparing ulema. These
institutions receive huge funds, particularly during the month of Ramadan. Most
Muslims consider financial support to mosques, madrassas and Darul ulooms as a
pious act. The larger Darul ulooms cannot find enough local students. They
advertise for students from poor families in UP and Bihar, offering them free
lodging and boarding. The tragedy lies in that most graduating maulvis, are ill
equipped to find jobs outside, other than in a mosque, or as petty traders or as
shop assistants or laborers. Shockingly this entire area, does not have a single
college, other than a dilapidated one at Cambay. I remember a visit to the riot
refugee settlement at Modasa, Sabarkanta. In 2002, about 580 families were
shifted here, from regions adjoining Godhra. Row houses were built for each
family. One donor built a mosque. But soon another donor came, and built another
mosque just 100 meters away. He rejected a request that he rather build a
reading hall cum hostel, where students could study and stay.
The good news is
that Muslim society, as a whole, is changing. The Babri demolition and more
important the Gujarat killings, has altered the world view of Muslims. They are
convinced that their security is linked to their acceptance of good education.
This demand for quality education is very strong, particularly in the
riot-scarred areas, such as Gujarat. It is a reflection of this trend that even
darul ulooms and madressas are incorporating subjects like computer training and
English in their curriculum. The Government of India must be congratulated for
setting up the Maulana Azad Education Foundation to help Muslims raise their
educational level. This good work must continue, for the best way to bridge our
communal divide is to educate Muslims. Reservation in educational institutions
and in employment, is not the answer to Muslim backwardness. It may benefit a
small creamy layer. But it may cause a further widening of the gulf between
communities. Muslims must stand on their own feet. Fortunately many are doing so
right now. The number of Muslim students in all medical colleges in Gujarat is
about 225, out of a total strength of about 4500. This works out to about 5 %.
The Gujarat Muslim population is about 10%.
In other words the
number of medical students is about half, of what should have been. Yet each
student has been admitted on his own merit, without reservation or payment. No
wonder most Muslim doctors, even in the Gujarat after Godhra, have a good
private medical practice. For the popular impression is that they are good
doctors. Otherwise they would never have survived the economic boycott of the
VHP. With reservation, the public will view them as backdoor entries. I have
never understood the clamor for reservation at Aligarh. The best tribute we can
pay Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, is to have the best and the brightest students, Muslims
and non Muslims, enter AMU, making it the Harvard of the East. Such a university
could serve the larger Muslim interests far better than one in which Muslims
admission is reserved. A 50% admission reservation in one university, will
automatically reduce the chances of Muslims being admitted to the hundreds of
other universities, The reservation demand is sharper in the liberal arts.
Frankly, Muslims would be much better off by moving away from the liberal arts
and languages, to the Sciences, Medicine and Technology. In a similar vein is
the Andhra Pradesh proposal for 5 % Government job reservation. In an era of
fewer Government jobs, why are we fighting for these few crumbs?
The Muslim future
in India, does not lie as a community of clerks and petty traders. Muslims must
accept the fact of discrimination with grace and a steely determination. They
can certainly beat the system. Better educated and determined Muslims will get
more jobs and at a higher level, than reservation can ever offer. The same is
true of the Army. Highly qualified Muslims must apply for Army recruitment. I am
sure they will be selected, for it is in the Army interest to do so. Most
important we have to stop complaining and demanding separate quotas. That is the
road to stagnation and decay for the community as a whole. The example of Dalits
and tribals is too obvious.
The silver lining
is the success of the Muslim girl students. Six months ago, a function held at
Vadodara, to honor all distinction students graduating from the university and
board exams, saw 95 girls, but only 28 boys. Vadodara is not an exception.
Similar figures are to be found all over. How do we explain this development?
Once family and society approve of female education, girls grab the opportunity,
and with dedicated hard work, seek to break the psyche of 'minority within a
minority’. I wish boys would also apply themselves in the same manner. There is
no greater joy than to see these brightest young women excelling in research in
fields as varied as nuclear physics, and biochemistry. The role of these
scientists in transforming Muslim society may be as vital as that of Sania
Mirza, through sports. Within a few decades, a stage will come where women may
no longer accept the glaring distortions that have crept into Muslim Personal
The All India
Muslim Personal Law Board should apply itself to the gender imbalance. To begin
with they must nominate far more women, than the one member, Naseem Iqtidar,
currently on its Board. The All India Women Personal Law Board, set up by
Shaista Amber, must not be viewed as heretics. Their energies and talent must be
directed to the larger good of the community. The activists must also be
conscious of ground realities. Muslim family life is quite stable. Triple talaq
and polygamy are repulsive to our women activists and rightly so. Fortunately
its actual practice is quite low. Dowry deaths are rare in the community,
although dowry demands are rising, and must be condemned very strongly. Note
that the one individual dearest to the Holy Prophet was his daughter Hazrat
Fatematus Zohra. Similarly he imparted the highest knowledge to his wife, Hazrat
Ayesha. Ms. Amber and her friends must use these historical facts, to win
community acceptance for women's rights, within the ambit of Islam.
The Holy Koran
refers to divorce in (2, 226 to 232); and also in (65, 1 to 7). There is no
mention at all of instant triple talaq. This is a later modification, brought in
to suit the demand of soldiers on long duty far from home. Our ulema must accept
that the triple talaq violates the letter and spirit of the Holy Koran and the
Hadith. The Holy Koran directs the husband to treat his divorced wife with
dignity, honor and kindness. If only we had imbibed these commands, the disaster
over Shah Banu would not have taken place.
The reference to
polygamy is most interesting . In (4,3), the Holy Koran allows men to marry up
to four wives. But then it stipulates that all must be treated just and fair.
The very next sentence says that even if you try to be just, you will not be
able to do so.
monogamy is the rule in Islam. Polygamy is permitted only under extreme
conditions. In actual practice most second marriages are a result of sexual
passion. This clause is misused by many rich and famous non-Muslims, by
declaring themselves as Muslims, to marry a second time. Fortunately, census
figures show that the rates of polygamous marriages are highest among tribals,
Buddhist, and Jains. The Muslim rate is the lowest. Most Muslims are so poor
that they cannot afford a second wife. Yet Narendra Modi could win an important
election by rabble-rousing: Hum Panch Hamare Pachees.
In Islam a child
is conceived once the egg meets the sperm. Allah gives it a soul. Hence Islam
treats abortion as murder. But 'coitus interruptus' was sanctioned by the Holy
Prophet. This method just stops the egg meeting the sperm. Then why do we oppose
family planning too vehemently, when it does the same work? I know of a case
where a woman having seven children, was told by the local maulvi, that she must
not undergo a family planning operation, otherwise her final rites after death,
would not be performed. The wretched woman will ever be a child producing
factory. Further any such operation requires the consent of the husband. In poor
families, this is often difficult to obtain. The result is that the poor woman
goes through repeated abortions, as that does not require the husband's consent.
In the process she stands guilty of murder, before Allah. At the same time,
frequent abortions affect her physical and mental health.
another major problem confronting the community. Recurrent riots have generated
a deep sense of insecurity. In Gujarat 2002, Hindutva forces targeted those
Muslims staying in Hindu localities, for they were so easy to attack. Even a
sitting High Court judge had to flee. Sadly these were the very people who acted
as a bridge between the two communities. Most of them fled to Muslim enclaves.
To make a personal mention, I was among the first to move into the Sama locality
of Vadodara. As housing societies sprang up around my house, I soon became a
rare Muslim in a purely Hindu area. I was happy, as I firmly believe that all
communities must live together. That is the best guarantee of a plural society.
My Hindu neighbors treated me with much respect and affection. They were pillars
of strength, as my wife suffered and died of cancer. The situation changed
horribly on the day after Godhra. Suddenly rumors spread that I was an ISI agent
and that my name implied guns were hidden in my house. With police complicity,
my house was destroyed in fifteen minutes. My daughter and I, just escaped an
almost certain death. I had no choice, but to leave Sama. I asked for a
university quarter. I was given one flat, in a block having four flats. All were
occupied when I moved in. But soon all the others left, and the three flats
remain unoccupied even after three years. Incidentally, almost all university
housing is occupied, except for the three flats in my block. I retire one year
from now. Where do I shift? Muslims would certainly welcome me in their areas.
Yet the dream of a plural society cannot die within me., My first choice is a
cosmopolitan locality. A recent inquiry for a flat I liked, brought about the
standard reply, 'We do not mind, but promise not to eat any non -veg food.'
Today it is
impossible for a Muslim to buy or rent a house in most urban areas of Gujarat.
The situation is similar all over the country, except that the severity may not
be that strong as in Gujarat, where Muslim areas have become ghettos. The
largest is Juhapura in Ahmedabad. Retired High Court judges, senior IAS and IPS
officers, and industrialists live therein. There are about 2.5 lakh residents.
Yet there are no banks, as it is classified in bureaucratic language as a
'negative rating'. There are no bus services. Roads are not maintained, nor is
water provided adequately. Garbage pickup is also totally inadequate. But there
are police posts around to control 'terrorists '. Muslims localities are
deliberately partitioned into different municipal wards. No Muslim can be
elected to the Municipal Corporation. Without representation and in a climate of
extreme communalism, these areas soon become ghettos.
What is the
answer? We must improve these areas on our own. Each locality must have a
committee to keep the place clean. Sweepers must be hired, through private
contributions. Trees must be planted, and nurtured. As the pressure on these
lands is very high, special care must be taken to prevent any encroachments
Political pressure must be applied to have nationalized banks open branches.
Hopefully with rising education levels, improved living standards and God
willing a lowering of hate from Hindutva elements, things will change. After all
the Holy Koran repeatedly says, 'Bear in the name of Allah, for the fruits of
patience and steadfastness are sweet indeed.'
very deep in the Muslim mind. Modi, Advani and Togadia will ever remain imbedded
in the Muslim consciousness. The rape and killings of women were particularly
horrifying. Trishuls were inserted into their private parts. Incidentally these
trishuls were earlier blessed by Swaminarayan sants. What do we make of Ashok
Singhal's statement that the Gujarat violence had the blessings of Lord Ram?
This mass frenzy of hate, aided and abetted by the State, had its origin in the
thoughts of Guru Golwalkar. It encompassed all segments of Gujarat Hindu
society, from the rich to the poor, from Brahmins and Jains, to Dalits and
tribals. Intellectuals, godmen, industrialists, high court judges, even certain
Gandhians became a part of Narendra Modi's scheme to teach Muslims a lesson.
Gujarat 2002 will forever remain a dark blot on Hinduism. Although there were a
few brave souls who stood apart from the maddening crowd, and did everything
possible to bring succor and relief to the victims and their families. We will
ever be grateful to them.
I was a strong
advocate of a dialogue between Muslims and the RSS. To improve relations, I even
responded to their invitation to speak on Veer Savarkar on the night of February
26. Twelve hours later, the Godhra train incident occurred, and my house was the
first attacked in Vadodara. Whatever illusions I had, died on that day. Now I am
convinced that there is no possibility of any understanding with the RSS. The
core of their belief is Golwalkar's hatred of Muslims. It is impossible for them
to abandon their fundamentals. Muslims have to be eternally vigilant. Yet we
must distinguish between the saffron forces and the vast mass of Hindus. I am
convinced most Hindus are good and secular at heart. I say this, even though
most Gujarati Hindus surrendered to their hate in 2002 and few have shown any
remorse. Nevertheless how do we ignore geographical reality. The 150 million
Muslims and the 850 million Hindus, live side by side, in almost all the towns
and villages of India. It is impossible to separate them. This basic truth has
to be accepted by both sides. Muslims must reach out to Hindus. Our words and
deeds must never be such that it alienates Hindus Their goodwill is essential,
as we struggle to give our community a place of honor in the Indian sun. We must
learn to see national and world problems in a larger perspective. To expect our
foreign policy to be centered on Iran is plain myopic. However angry we may be
with President Bush, to oppose his visit so vehemently, at a time, when vital
national interests were involved, is self-destructive. Similarly, we have to
condemn the Holy Prophet's cartoons. But to attack property here, to spite the
cartoonist in Denmark is horrifying. We must be wise enough to see through the
gimmicks played by politicians. It is disgusting that these worthies view
Muslims as so easily amenable to emotional lollipops.
Finally, a word
about high Muslim dignitaries. We have had three Muslim Presidents, a Vice
President, three Chief Justices, countless Governors and Cabinet Ministers. Yet
shockingly they have had almost no impact on the Muslim mass. Why? With great
persuasion I have taken some of these dignitaries to address Muslims inside
mohallas. But they end up speaking on Ambedkar or Sardar Patel. They could so
easily have spoken on education, with references to The Holy Prophet. It would
have endeared them to the Muslim audience. But somehow they are frightened about
any action or word that may provoke a minority appeasement charge.
President Kalam is
a most distinguished man. He gives high priority for interaction with children.
In December 2003, I personally urged him to visit a very good school, run by a
Muslim trust in Vadodara. Half the students are Hindus. This school was
organizing a Gujarat Science Fair, in which students from all over the State
were participating. Further it was dedicated to President Kalam's guru, Vikram
Sarabhai. His widow was to participate. The President refused, and his Secretary
curtly told me, that the President has visited Gujarat recently, and cannot come
again. Imagine my shock, when just 20 days later, he visited a Gujarat
Swaminarayan gurukul. I write this more in sorrow, for there is so much these
high dignitaries could do, to calm Muslim fears and increase their emotional
attachment to the country. By avoiding the Muslim mass, they lose all
credibility. Worse they make it possible for political charlatans and even
criminals to project themselves as the protectors of the community. (Courtesy
Economic and Political Weekly)