How Islamic inventors changed the world
to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many
innovations that we in the West take for granted. Here are 20 of their most
(1) The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa
region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after
eating a certain berry.
He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of
the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to
stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it
had arrived in Makkah and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645.
It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the
first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic “qahwa”
became the Turkish “kahve” then the Italian “caffé” and then English “coffee”.
(2) The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which
enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather
than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and
physicist Ibn al-Haitham.
He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through
a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he
worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word “qamara” for
a dark or private room).
He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a
philosophical activity to an experimental one.
(3) A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into
the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe —
where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century — and eastward
as far as Japan. The word “rook” comes from the Persian “rukh”, which means
(4) A thousand years before the Wright brothers, a Muslim poet, astronomer,
musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct
a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in
Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts.
He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall,
creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only
In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he
tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed
aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing — concluding, correctly, that it
was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.
Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.
(5) Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps
why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient
Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade.
But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and
aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders’ most striking
characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash.
Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour
Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings
George IV and William IV.
(6) Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their
boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam’s foremost scientist,
Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the
basic processes and apparatus still in use today — liquefaction, crystallisation,
distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration.
As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still,
giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits
(although drinking them forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic
experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry.
(7) The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and
is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal
combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the
history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari
to raise water for irrigation.
His Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices (1206) shows he also
invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first
mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics.
Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.
(8) Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of
insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the
Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China.
However, it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by
Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour.
As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the
chafing of the Crusaders’ metal armour and was an effective form of insulation —
so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such
as Britain and Holland.
(9) The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals was an
invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the
rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of
bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings.
Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and
dome-building techniques. Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic
world’s — with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers
and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. The architect of Henry
V’s castle was a Muslim.
(10) Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those
devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels,
bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200
instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon.
It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away
naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it
can be also used to make medicine capsules.
In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the
circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslim
doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed
hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.
(11) The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind
corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the
seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew
steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in
fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in
(12) The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was
devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the
English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with
cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered
(13) The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he
demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a
reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of
gravity and capillary action.
(14) The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in
origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the
work of the Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825.
Algebra was named after al-Khwarizmi’s book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, much of
whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported
into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci.
Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world.
And Al-Kindi’s discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the
ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology.
(15) Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to
Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course
meal — soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced
crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by
Abbas ibn Firnas).
(16) Carpets were regarded as part of paradise by mediaeval Muslims, thanks to
their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and
highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam’s
In contrast, Europe’s floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until
Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded,
floors were “covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that
the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring
expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of
fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned”. Carpets, unsurprisingly,
caught on quickly.
(17) The modern cheque comes from the Arabic “saqq”, a written vow to pay for
goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across
dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque
in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad.
(18) By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth
was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, “is that the Sun is always
vertical to a particular spot on Earth”. It was 500 years before that
realisation dawned on Galileo.
The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century
they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km — less than 200km out.
Al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily
(19) Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their
fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using
potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the
By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a
“self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo — a self-propelled pear-shaped
bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew
(20) Mediaeval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who
developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first
royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain.
Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.
(Courtesy: The Independent)