AND HIS IMPACT ON THE ISLAMIC REVIVALISM IN INDONESIA
By M Iqbal Khumaini
Iqbal was a unique person he is not only known as philosopher but also a poet, He is known as a the muslim philosopher of modern time after a long absence of muslim philosopher in Muslim world whereas the death of Averrous was the end of philosophy in Muslim world and transmitted to the Europe and the enlightenment age began there.
Generally speaking about Iqbal’s impact on Islamic revivalism in Indonesia was not only in the aspect of Islamic knowledge but also politic and literature. In literature for example: Translations of Iqbal `s poems appeared in Indonesia collection ‘The incense of the orient’ published by Amir Hamzah in 1939. The collection was among the first sources that familiarized the Indonesian reading public with Iqbal.
Iqbal’s impact also play role in the the Indonesian struggle for Independence we can see that around about 1940 the Indonesian leaders struggling for the freedom from colonial domination and they often resorted to Iqbal`s philosophical ideas especially by Islamic politicians. The name of Iqbal was often mentioned in radio and press of indonesian in the early of Indonesian independence in 1945. One of our Indonesian journalist L.M. Isa in the earlier time of Indonesia birth said that Iqbal name was like a call for courage and steadfastness in fighting againts Dutch troops. And also Iqbal`s idea has supported them to build an Islamic state and abandoning the principle of Secularism.
T.M Usman al-Muhammady declared himself Iqbal`s disciple and follower. He noted Iqbal`s saying about the links between religion and Politic, whereas the situation in that time Muslim country was very sad, Ottoman khilafah fell down and muslims ummah scattered into many states and the idea of nationalism was raged by west into muslim countries. So Iqbal was a pioneer who struggled in returning the khilafah and rejecting the idea of secularism. But it was not so easy as we think, secularism has spread to all muslim countries, the idea that Islam has no role in Politic, no Islam in state has absorbed the thinking of people. In Turkey, Indonesia, Egypt, Sudan, Bosnia etc Islam was expelled out from politic. But Iqbal called for making Islam as the ideology of state and got success in establishing the Islamic Republic of Pakistan which include Bangladesh and present Pakistan.
The success of Muslims Indian in establishing Islamic republic of Pakistan which is actually the continuation of Iqbal’s idea ‘two nation theory’ has also impressed an Indonesian Muslims party to unite under flag of ‘Masyumi Party’.
Muhammad Natsir a president of the first Islamic party “Masyumi”, speaking in the commemorating of Iqbal`s birthday in 1953 that Iqbal had introduced and encouraged rational thinking among the Muslims and formulated the principle of Islamic statehood.
Iqbal’s Idea didn’t play only in the establishing of Islamic state but also in the renaissance of Islamic knowledge. Let us see What was the real situation of Muslim society in subcontinent when Iqbal called for his reconstruction of religious thought. The situation was that a British occupation left a very deep effect on the thinking of Muslim society in subcontinent “a dichotomy of science”. Where Islamic knowledge was figured out as a separate from science.
He observed the absence of scientific method in the study of religious knowledge whereas the religious madrasas taught religious knowledge in a very classical way ignoring the progress of present knowledge.
So Iqbal was a pioneer who called for the modernization of Islamic knowledge. He called for the study of classical muslim scholar’s account in science under the modern scientific method. For example the account of Mutakallimun in the explaining the origin of matter. That each matter consists of atom which can not be divided. This theory has been discovered by Muslims which is integrated later on by western philosopher.
But sadly this call got no appeal in Muslim subcontinent but it got a warm welcoming in our country Indonesia and Turkey. Osman Ralibi the Islamic modern thinker of Indonesia in 1966 supervised the translation and publication of Iqbal`s book, The Reconstruction Of Religious Thought in Islam. noted in his preface The great poet and philosopher had waged a battle againts the idea of "art for art`s sake". So it made a beginning of renaissance of Islamic knowledge in Indonesia. So during the earlier 1970 it began studying Islamic knowledge under scientific method. It began quranic verses studied under the discovery of science. We saw muslims author in our country such as: Baiquni, who originally were scientists but try to trace back a new discovery of science its root on quranic verses such as big bang theory and in Turkey we see Harun Yahya. Actually this theory has been talked by ancient muslim philosopher under topic “othology”.
So Iqbal’s impact was not only in the revival of Islam but also in the renaissance of Islamic science. So Iqbal left a great impact on the renaissance of Islamic knowledge and politic. But who continuos Iqbal’s idea? The writer could not determine exactly who continuo his idea. However, we can not say that Cak Nur who did it but he rather continuo the idea of of controversial thinker in subcontinent Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan.
*This writing deduced from many books but writer could not mention exactly the name of books due to the short of time. But here some books which can be a reference of this writing:
-The reconstruction of religious thought in Islam by Dr. Muhammad Iqbal.
-Pakistan Studies by Ikram Rabbani.
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