Who wrote the Qur'an
What makes Muslims believe that the Quran is not written by
Prophet Muhammad? Does the Quran claim that it is from God? Could the Prophet
have copied some portions of the Bible? Are there scientific facts in the
Muslims believe that Prophet Muhammad is not the author of the Quran. God is
its Author. The following points bear the fact:
*First of all, the Quran itself, at a number of places and in different ways,
says that it is from God. One of the claims runs thus: "This is indeed a
Quran most honourable, a Book well-guarded...a Revelation from the Lord of the
Worlds." (Quran 56:77-80)
(Here, one ought to know the features of the Quran to understand the claim
better. For instance, if the Quran had consisted of a number of books, and each
book was made up of a number of chapters, then each of the books had to claim
that it was from God in order to render the WHOLE volume as coming from God.
But, this is fortunately not so with the Quran. The Quran is just ONE Book made
up of 114 chapters. So, if the Quran claims, in any of its chapters, that the
Book is from God, then the WHOLE Quran is from God. Yet, the Quran does not
make the divine claim only once, but several times in different phrases and in
*If the Prophet had written the Quran _ a Book par excellence _ surely he would
have claimed credit for it, but he did not. He could not claim what was not
his. Indeed God says: "This Quran is not such as can be produced by anyone
other than God." (10:37)
*The Prophet was unlettered. However, even if he was educated and had written
the Quran, how could he be bold enough to make this statement: "Do they
not consider (ponder over) the Quran (with care)? Had it been from other than
God, they would surely have found therein discrepancies". (4:82)
Abdullah Yusuf Ali, commenting on this verse (verse 4:82) in his English
translation of the Quran, says: "From a mere human point of view, we
should have expected much discrepancy, because (1) Prophet Muhammad who
promulgated it was not a learned man or philosopher, (2) it was promulgated at
various times and in various circumstances, and (3) it is addressed to all
grades of mankind. Yet, when properly understood, its various pieces fit
together better than a jigsaw puzzle even when arranged without any regard to
chronological order. There was just the One Inspirer and one inspired."
*The Quran took 23 years to complete. Had the verses of the Quran (which
contains 6,666 verses) been written by the Prophet, he would have needed a
number of drafts and the work would have needed editing, updating, etc. But
this did not happen, yet the information is consistent throughout the Quran.
The verses were taken down as dictated by the Prophet only once and no
redrafting, editing or updating took place after that.
*At a number of stages during the 23-year period, challenges to reproduce, even
a chapter of the Quran, were made. If the Prophet had written the Quran, he
would not have made the challenges, for fear that the learned
Arabs and eminent poets of his time would have taken up his challenges and
shamed him. One of the challenges goes thus: "And if you are in doubt as
to what We have revealed (from time to time) to Our servant (Muhammad), then
produce a chapter like thereunto..." (2:23)
*The Quran says that the Prophet was not learned.
So, if the Prophet was educated in some institution but mentioned in the Quran
that he wasn't, he would have been accused of being a liar and his mission
would have fallen through.
*Even if the Prophet was learned, how could he have written such an inimitable
Book of Information and Wisdom without resorting to consultation with prominent
scholars and the best books from the best libraries in the world?! If he did
this, it would surely have been known, since every move he made was known to
people. The Prophet was a historical figure, not a mythological figure.
*The Prophet was the busiest and most active person in history. So, how could
he have found the time to write (even if he were educated) such a comprehensive
and extensive Book of Guidance which would have needed years of seclusion and
concentration to complete?
*In the Quran, in Chapter 111, it is mentioned that Abu Lahab, one of the
Prophet's uncles who was always against Islam, would never accept Islam. This
Revelation came some ten years before the death of Abu Lahab. How could the
Prophet have dared to write this chapter because all he (Abu Lahab) needed to
do to prove that the Quran was not the Words of God, was to accept Islam
*The Prophet was mentioned by name in the Quran only five times whereas Jesus
Christ's name was (honourably) mentioned 25 times. Could the Prophet go to such
an extent of honouring someone more than himself if he had written the Quran?
*There is a chapter in the Quran entitled and dedicated to "Mary",
the mother of Jesus Christ, while there is no chapter called, or dedicated to,
the Prophet's own mother, Aminah, or daughter, Fatimah, nor were their names
mentioned in the Quran. Could this have happened if the Prophet was the author
of the Quran?
*Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, is glorified in the Quran as a "woman
of all nations". Why would the Prophet glorify a woman he had never seen
and one from another race, saying that she was chosen (by God) above all women
unless the formulation of the verses had nothing to do with the Prophet's own
authorship but that he only repeated what was inspired to him by God?
*In the Quran, God is called "Allah" (in Arabic). He is also referred
to by His Attributes, like the Cherisher, the Merciful, the Almighty. There are
99 such Attributes but none of these is "Abba" (Father) by which the
Arab Christians of the Prophet's time (and even today) refer to God. If the
Prophet was the writer of the Quran, he would surely have used "Abba"
as one of the names for God because of its familiarity and also because it was
easier to say "Abba" than many of the Attributes.
*Although the Quran's objective is basically religious, it does touch on
certain principles and laws governing the universe. A French scientist, Maurice
Bucaille, in his book, "The Bible, the Quran and Science", says:
"What initially strikes the reader confronted for the first time with a
text of this kind (the Quran) is the sheer abundance of subjects discussed: the
Creation, astronomy, the explanation of certain matters concerning the earth,
and the animal and vegetable kingdoms, human reproduction ...I could not find a
single error in the Quran. I had to stop and ask myself: if a man was the
author of the Quran, how could he have written facts in the 7th Century AD that
today are shown to be in keeping with modern scientific knowledge?''
*The Quran mentions a number of scientific facts which were unknown to the
world then. Some of them are:
-The moon has no light of its own and that what we see is the reflected light
of the sun. (91:1-2),
-The universe came about by a "big bang" or disintegration billions
of years ago. (21:30),
-Every living thing began in water. (continuation of 21:30),
-Stages of reproduction of a life in the womb.(22:5),
-Every living thing, including vegetable matter, is created in pairs (male and
-All celestial body (namely, moon and planets) have their own course of orbit.
(7:54 and 21:33),
-Space travel is possible. (55:33), and
-There is also life (in whatever form) in other parts of the universe. (42:29).
-All these scientific facts were discovered only in the last couple of
centuries whereas the Quran mentions them 14 centuries ago. How could the
Prophet, even if he were educated, have known these fact centuries ahead of
*Learned Arabs and other experts in the Arabic language acknowledge that the
style, diction and rendering in the Quran far excels those in the Hadith. Those
in the Quran are inimitable, proving that the Quran is authored by God.
*Umar, later to become Caliph, had wanted to kill the Prophet because of his
(Islamic) teachings. One day, Umar heard his sister reading something _ the
sound, diction and meaning of which made him halt to listen. His sister, who
had secretly converted to Islam, was reading (part of) the Quran. Umar realised
that the Words he was listening to could not be the words of man. He submitted
to Islam soon after.
*The Quran says: "If the whole of mankind and jinns (spirits) were to come
together to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like
thereof even if backed up by each other with help and support." (17:88)
This is a bold statement indeed. If the Prophet had written the Quran, would he
as a human being, dare make such an explosive statement? Would this statement
go unchallenged by the learned Arabs of his time?
Prophet Muhammad, being an unlettered person, could not have written the Quran,
a Book full of wisdom and one dealing with varied subject matters. The Quran
categorically states: "This Quran is not such as can be produced by anyone
other than God. (It is a Book) from the Lord of the Worlds." (10:37)
Why do Muslims refer to the Quran as a living
Many of God's Prophets in the past had performed miracles either to prove that
they were sent by God or to help people to achieve certain goals. However, as
these miracles were for certain people of the time of the respective Prophets,
they are neither tangible nor available today as a living proof. But the Quran
is. It is a miracle by itself. When people asked Prophet Muhammad what miracle
he had performed, the Prophet pointed to the Quran.
Muslims regard the Quran as a living miracle because, among other reasons, it:
*Is a Book par excellence in the provision of complete guidance for this life
and the Hereafter,
*Is available in the language (Arabic) as revealed to the Prophet,
*Is inimitable in diction, sound and rendering,
*Is accurate in its presentation of facts,
*Has remained pure (without interpolation),
*Has no contradiction or inconsistencies,
*Has influenced the lives of people, and
*Is responsible for the speedy spread of Islam, even now.
With regard to the Quran being a miracle from the point of view of its
influence on people, Maulana Muhammad Ali in his book, "The Religion of
Islam", says: "The Quran is a miracle because it brought about the
greatest transformation that the world has ever witnessed _ a transformation of
the individual, of the family, of the society, of the nation, of the country,
an awakening material as well as moral, intellectual and spiritual. It produced
an effect, a hundred thousand times greater than that of any other miracle
recorded of any Prophet; hence, its claim to be the greatest of all miracles is
uncontestable and uncontested."
Researches on the Quran have been made throughout these 14 centuries. More
particularly, in recent years, in the wake of religious enquiries, Quranic
scholars, scientists and mathematicians have each, in their own way and
knowledge, discovered that the factual contents of the Quran as well as the
arrangement of its Words and text point to the fact that the Quran is indeed
the living miracle of Islam.
"Every honest Jew who knows the history of his people
cannot but feel a deep sense of gratitude to Islam, which has protected the
Jews for fifty generations, while the Christian world persecuted the Jews and
tried many times 'by the sword' to get them to abandon their faith." (Uri Avnery, a Jewish Journalist)