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Ramadan: From Passionate to Compassionate

Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph. D. 
Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc.
7102 W. Shefford Lane
Louisville, KY 40242-6462, USA


This  RAMADAN KHUTBAH  was delivered by Dr. Ibrahim B. Syed, President of the Islamic Research Foundation of Louisville, KY   on JAN. 16, 1998 at the Islamic Center of Louisville, in Louisville, Kentucky.

O ye who believer!Fasting is prescribed to you

As it was prescribed

To those before you,

That ye may(learn)

Self -restraint-


(Fasting) for a fixed

Number of days;

But if any of you is ill,

Or on a journey,

The prescribed number

(Should be made up)

From days later,

For those who can do it

(With hardship), is a ransom,

The feeding of one

That is indigent.

But he that will give

More, of his own free will-

It is better for him.

And it is better for you

That ye fast

If ye only knew.


(Surah 2: Al Baqarah, 183-184) 

Islam proceeded step by step and by degrees in the imposition of most of its obligatory duties and Fasting was no exception. The Noble Prophet(pbuh) advised Muslims to observe fasts for three days in a month but this was not obligatory. Then in the second year of Hijra, the Command(2:183) about fasting in the month of Ramadan was revealed. Verse 185 in Surah Al Baqarah was revealed next year.  The first Commandment about fasting contained in vv. 183-184 was revealed in the second year of Hijrah before the battle of  Badr. The subsequent verse which superseded it was revealed a year later but was inserted here because it dealt with the same matter. 

Siyam or Fasting during the month of Ramadan is Third Pillar of Islam. Muslims wait all year long for the arrival of this month of Ramadan. FASTING MEANS  from dawn until sunset eating, drinking and sexual intercourse is forbidden. Ramadan is the month of patience. A person who is ready to be patient, not to eat  while he is hungry, not to drink while he is thirsty, not to lean to his lusts, such a person is a noble individual.  Such a person will be given paradise by Allah(SWT) as a gift, as a merit of award.  

To train yourself to abstain from the essentials of life is not  an easy act. It needs a strong personality to dictate self-control, self-discipline and self-restraint. Fasting develops self-control and helps Muslims overcome selfishness, greed, laziness and other faults. It is an annual training program to refresh us for carrying out our duties towards Allah.  A person who can restrain himself, for the love and pleasure of Allah, deserves a reward from the Creator Himself. The hardship of fasting brings the glad tidings that the fasting undertaken for the sole purpose of pleasing Allah is sure to be accepted by the Most  Merciful Lord.  

Fast in which the spirit of Fasting is not observed is only an exercise in starvation but not really a Fast at all. The prophet(pubh) said “ whosoever does not give up telling lies, or

acting in a false manner, Allah has no need for his giving up his eating or drinking.”  

The basic purpose of Fasting is to suffuse us with the quality of taqwa. The term “taqwa”  implies fear and precaution and in  Islamic terminology it means fear of Allah  or God Consciousness  and avoidance of disobedience to Him. Literally, taqwa means: Godliness, devotees  or piety.  According to the scientific meaning, it signifies a screen between two things. Thus, if the servant submits himself to Allah’s will by carrying out all obligatory duties with which he has been commanded and abstains from that which Allah has prohibited, then his obedient actions have placed a screen between himself and Allah’s punishment. That is called taqwa.  In our life journey we face innumerable temptations and we must shun them and stick scrupulously to the path of righteousness and truth- that is what constitutes taqwa, and for generating this taqwa.  Taqwa is attained through knowledge which is coupled with true faith(iman). If we do not possess knowledge, we cannot really show piety. To obey the commands of Allah and to carry out His laws constitutes taqwa.  Fasting has been made obligatory on us. We are made conscious about the needs and deprivation of those who are more in need than ourselves. This heightening of one’s sense of sacrifice is the opposite of selfishness and of a desire to exploit or oppress someone for the sake of gain.  Allah(SWT) does not need our hunger, but fasting helps us to develop and refine our reflex about right and wrong, our sense of love and gratitude.  Ramadan teaches us how to control our animal passions, how to bring them under discipline.  The end result is manifestation of a human personality that loves Allah and loves His creation, that fears none but Allah, that draws all its strength from Allah and Allah alone.  

Ramadan is also the month of the Qur’an, the month in which the Qur’an was revealed.The moral and spiritual climate of Ramadan helps the flourishing of the Qur’anic message which the ambiance is of goodness, humility, righteousness, love for good and aversion for evil.  


 Besides the feeling of hunger and thirst, fasting teaches us to control the love of comfort. It  helps us to keep our sexual desires within control. Siyaam builds and nourishes  the soul of the fasting Muslim. The fasting person enriches his fasting by the remembrance of Allah, the recitation of the Qur’an, the night prayers, Zakah, Sadaqah(charity), and by refraining from sins and obscenity. The fasting person lowers his gaze and suppresses his desires.  He guards his tongue from vain talk and obscenities.  He guards his hands and legs from the prohibitions of Allah. He employs his hands and legs in the good and various deeds. Siyaam is not the mere refraining from eating and drinking, it is also refraining from vanity and obscenity.  Siyaam builds a strong will and nourishes the truthful zeal in the soul. This is achieved when the fasting person struggles to work for his livelihood and resists his desires and temptations.  Siyaam builds the strength  to bear difficulties and hardship and instills the character of perseverance. The fasting person by depriving himself from food and drink, and other necessities of life becomes capable of controlling his desires, capricious whims, and temptations. The purpose of fasting is to enable a Muslim to control his passions, so that he becomes a person of good deeds and intentions. If one fasts from dawn to sunset, but continues to be abusive to one’s spouse and children, tell lies, swears wrongly under oath, commits zina, cheats  one’s children by not giving them what is duly theirs of nafaqah in the form of care and love and indulgence in other wrongful acts, then the objective of fasting has not been achieved.  Anger, a common human weakness, can also be brought under control by fasting.  A Muslim should keep away from all bad actions during his fast.  He should not lie, break a promise or do any deceitful act.  Fasting in Ramadan helps one to develop good habits and suppress or eliminate bad habits such as smoking, drinking coffee, tea,  etc.  One can avoid or cut down on excessive consumption of food.  

A fasting person has feelings of sympathy for the poor. The sense of compassion springs from the feeling of pain. Fasting is a practical means to develop compassion for other people’s sufferings. The Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) himself was very generous during Ramadan.  

Ramadan instills unity and equality among all the members of the Muslim ummah. The Muslims fast during the same month, perform qiyaam al lail during the nights of this month and all seek the night of Qadr.  They offer  zakat-ul-fitr at the end of the month and celebrate Eid-ul-Fitr together. By doing this together during this month of Ramadan, the ummah becomes like one body living in harmony. The fasting person is alert and cautious not to fall into something that might spoil his or her fasting or seek the wrath of Allah.

Fasting elevates the person from the material life to a higher spiritual life and helps him or her to approach a spiritual level that of angels who worship Allah day and night without tiredness.  

Fasting builds important Islamic values, such as compassion, cooperation, diligence, firmness, affection, fear of Allah, trust in Allah,  and many other qualities. Fasting establishes equality among the rich and the poor.  It is a compulsory experience of poverty in that it makes all people share an quality, of feeling and to sympathize with one another through a collective sense of pain.  Fasting Muslims can really sympathize with the starving people everywhere in the world and see the hardship that they go through every day of their lives. This compassion increases the practical aspect of the unity of Muslims and will reduce the idea of nationality and geographical identity.  Allah is pleased with his servants and answers the duaa of the fasting person, when he supplicates to Him.  

During the month of Ramadan, one should visit and offer prayers more frequently in the local mosques. Ramadan is a special time for visiting friends and family and sharing meals with the less fortunate.  

The Prophet(pbuh) said, “ O people!  The month of Ramadan has come with His mercy, blessing and forgiveness.  Allah(SWT) has decreed this month the best of all months. Its days are the best among days, its nights best among nights, and its hours best among hours.  This is a month in which you have been invited by Him to fast and pray.  Allah(SWT) has honored you in it.  Every breath you  take in this month has the reward of praise of Allah(SWT). Your sleep in worship, your good deeds are accepted and your invocations answered.  

Therefore you must invoke your Lord in earnest, with hearts that are free from sin and evil, and pray that Allah(SWT) helps you fast, and recite the Qur’an. Give alms to the poor and the needy. Pay respect to your elders, have sympathy for your youngsters and be kind toward your relatives and kinsfolk. Guard your tongue against unworthy words, and your eyes from scenes that are not worth seeing and your ears from sounds that should not be heard. Understand well that Allah(SWT) has promised in the Name of His Majesty and Honor that He will not take to task such people who perform Salaat and Sajda and that  He will guard their bodies against the fire of hell on the Day of Judgment.  

O’ people! If anyone among you arranges Iftar for any believer, then Allah(SWT) will reward him and forgive him his previous sins. (A companion of the prophet(pbuh) asked: “But not everyone among us have the means to do so.” The prophet replied: “Do it even if it be with half a date or some water if you have nothing else.”)  

O’ people! Anyone who cultivates in this month good manners will walk over the bridge leading to paradise on the day when feet will tend to slip.  Anyone who treats his kinsfolk well in it, Allah will bestow His mercy on him on the Day of Judgment while anyone who mistreats his kinsfolk,  Allah will keep him away from His mercy.  Whoever recites a verse of the Qur’an in this month, his  reward will be that of reciting the whole Qur’an in other months.  

O’people! The gates of paradise remain open in this month: pray to your Lord that they may not be closed for you.  The gates of hell are closed during this month: pray that they may never be opened for you.  Satan has been handcuffed: invoke your Lord not to let him dominate you.”  

May  Allah(SWT) make us become kinder people, better neighbors and set good examples of the teachings of Islam which we present.  Ameen!


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