The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Qur’an Majid (the Glorious Qur'an) is a book of guidance to humanity. It is known by several names. It is also known as Kitabul Hikmah or the Book of Wisdom. In over 1100 verses (20 % of the Qur'an), the importance of thinking, reflecting and pondering on the Signs of’ Allah (SWT) is emphasized. For example
“Behold, verily in these things
There are Signs for those who understand!
Qur’an, 13: 4
“ Lo! Herein is indeed a portent for people
Who reflect.”………….. Qur’an, 16 : 11
There are several Ayath (verses) in the Qur’an in which we are asked to understand the Signs (natural phenomena, e.g. 15: 75, 16: 12, 13, 67, 69, etc.,
There are two Ayath in the Qur'an the Muslims did not understand in the light of modern knowledge. These are:
Everything (That exists) will perish
Except His own Face.” ----Qur’an, 28: 88,
Everything that exists will perish,
There remains but the Countenance of they Lord, Full of
Majesty, Bounty and Honor.
------- Qur'an, Surah Rahman, 55: 26-27
“What is with you must vanish
is with Allah will endure.”
To the best of my knowledge and understanding these three Ayath refer to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. What is Thermodynamics? Thermodynamics is a subject in physics, which is the study of various forms of energy, such as heat and work, and of the conversion of energy from one form into another.
THE FIRST LAW:
Thermodynamics is based chiefly on two “laws”. The first law states that energy in a system, which may be anything from a single object to a complex machine cannot be created or destroyed. Instead, energy is either converted from one form into another or transferred from one system to another. For example, a heat engine, such as a gas turbine or a nuclear reactor, changes energy from fuel into heat energy. Then the heat energy is converted into mechanical energy that can be used to do work. The total amount of energy always remains the same. In the whole universe the total quantity of energy and matter is a constant. Furthermore, it is not only possible for one form of energy to be converted into another but also energy may be converted into matter or matter may be converted into energy, but the total quantity always remains the same. That means, one cannot get something from anything, and also one cannot take something and make nothing out of it.
In India, there are godly men who create materials
like gold, watches, colored ashes, etc., in their hand fists from thin air. For
rationalists, this is nothing but a hand trick or sleight of hand; otherwise it
violates the first law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics, the
most firmly established natural law in Science does not contradict Qur’anic
statements concerning the creation of heavens and the earth.
THE SECOND LAW
The second law of thermodynamics deals with the natural direction of energy processes. For example, according to this law, heat will, of its own accord, flows only from hot to a colder object. The second law accounts for the fact that a heat engine can never be completely efficient— that is, it cannot convert all the heat energy from its fuel into mechanical energy. Instead, the engine transfers some of its heat energy to colder objects in the surroundings.
Entropy is a property of matter. Scientists use it in connection with thermodynamics, the study of heat and work as mentioned earlier. The capacity of any system to perform work is its “free energy”. The amount of energy that is lost unavoidably as non-useful heat is reflected in the measurement of “entropy” - a term first used in 1850 by the German physicist Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius. Entropy is a measure of order and energy in a system. When a system has lost all order and all energy, it has reached maximum entropy. The American Heritage Dictionary defines entropy as "For a closed system, the quantitative measure of the amount of thermal energy not available to do work." In other words it is a negative kind of quantity-the opposite of available energy.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics, which limits the ability of a natural system to have a decrease of entropy, only applies to closed system. When a system is open and can exchange energy with the outside, then that open system can have a decrease in entropy and an increase in order. The most obvious example of this is, coincidentally, a living organism. All organisms run the risk of approaching maximum entropy, or death. But they manage to avoid this by drawing in energy from the world - by eating, drinking, assimilating. The Earth is not an isolated system(it is an open system) because it gets energy from the Sun and the Earth also radiates energy into space. According to thermodynamics when energy comes from a hot source like the Sun, it can do work, which means that "complexity" or "order" can be produced(decrease in entropy). A good example is the transformation of a human fetus into an adult. This is an example of the production of a thermodynamically complex system wherein there is no violation of the laws of thermodynamics. A second matter which must be remembered is that whenever a system experiences such a decrease in entropy, a wider price must be paid. When a biological organism absorbs energy and grows - thus increasing in complexity - work is done. When work is done, it is not done with 100% efficiency. So some energy is wasted and some given off as heat - this means that in the larger context, entropy is increased even as entropy decreases within that organism. Thus, the Second Law is not violated.
Clausius showed that in any process involving a flow of energy, there is always some loss, so that the entropy of the universe is continually increasing. This continual increase of entropy is called the “Second Law of Thermodynamics.” It is sometimes referred to as the “running down of the universe” or the “heat - death of the universe.” Fortunately the quantity of usable energy (supplied almost entirely by the stars, which are, of course, “running down” at a tremendous rate) is so vast that there is enough for all purposes for many billions of years.
The entropy of a substance increases whenever the energy it possesses to do work decreases. For example, steam entering a turbine has a low degree of entropy because it can do work by moving the turbine shaft. After moving the shaft, the steam has less energy available for doing work, and thus its entropy has increased. The total entropy of the universe is increasing because, in time, all matter tends to lose available energy.
Entropy is also used as a measure of the internal disorder in a substance. The atoms of’ a diamond are orderly because chemical bonds lock them in a rigid framework. But the atoms of helium gas in a balloon are disorderly because they shoot about inside the balloon. A diamond has lower entropy than helium.
The science of information theory uses the concept of entropy to describe how faithfully a system can handle information. A system that has a high degree of unpredictability has high entropy.
Most people believed that the universe had been here forever and would continue to be here forever. But according to the Qur’an the universe had a beginning. Now cosmologists and astronomers are finding physical evidence (observations that the universe is expanding; detection of electromagnetic radiation, called microwaves, left over from the initial explosion (Big Bang) which were discovered by Dr. Penzias and Dr. Wilson for which they received Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964; detection of density fluctuations in the after glow of radiation from the “Big Bang” in April 1992; and an inventory of the relative abundance of the chemical elements in the universe) to the origin of the universe. The creation theory says that about 15 billion years ago, the physical universe burst into existence in an awesome explosion known as the “big bang”. The second law of thermodynamics supports the creation of the universe. According to this law everyday the universe becomes more and more disordered (entropy increases). There is a sort of gradual but inexorable descent into chaos (entropy). One can see many examples of the second law at work everywhere: buildings fall down, people grow old, mountains and shorelines are eroded, trees fall, natural resources are depleted. Landscapes changed by farming and highways, water pollution, air pollution, emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur, population explosion resulting in loss of land for corps and deforestation, fading biodiversity, rapid extinction of flora and fauna- in other words the earth is doomed! One can apparently find counter-examples of this law. Such as new buildings are erected, new trees sprung up, newborn babies, etc., Are these not examples of order (negative entropy) arising out of disorder?
In these cases one should look at the total system and not merely the subject of’ interest. The accumulation of order in one part of the universe occurs, by increasing disorder (entropy) in some other part of the universe. In constructing a new building, new materials are used and this depletes the resources of the world, at the same time the energy expended in the building process is also lost irrecoverably. So when one draws a balance sheet, it will be obvious that disorder (entropy) always win. As mentioned earlier entropy is a measure of disorder. Many experiments verify that the total entropy in a system never decreases. If a system is isolated from its surroundings, any change that occurs within it will drive up the entropy until it can go no higher. Once this stage is reached there will be no further change and the system will have reached a condition of thermodynamic equilibrium.
As the universe has a finite stock of order, and is changing irreversibly towards disorder (entropy is increasing) the following two conclusions can be made:
(1) The universe will eventually die, in its own entropy known as the “heat death” of the universe.
(2) The universe cannot have existed forever, because it would have reached its equilibrium end state long time ago. In other words the universe always did not exist.
These truths were revealed to us 1400 years ago, as the Qur’an says that the universe had a beginning and it also has an end.
According to the second law of thermodynamics the earth, cannot have existed forever, or else its core would have cooled down. Radioactivity studies show earth to be about four and a half billion years old.
It has been verified scientifically that the universe, in its present state is deteriorating. Everywhere we look, from large-scale structures of the galaxies to the microscale of the atom, we find a universal, natural tendency of all systems to go from order (negative entropy) to disorder (entropy); from complexity to simplicity. Thus clusters of galaxies are dispersing as the galaxies move away from one another.
The rotation of the earth is slowing; the magnetic field of the earth is decaying. The features of the earth are torn down by erosion. Our bodies wear out; we die and decay to a pile of dust. Houses, machines wear out and are finally abandoned and replaced. Many atoms decay to simpler products, even sub-atomic particles, such as proton, are postulated to decay, though ever so slowly, into energy. The fuel in the sun and each star is being burned up at the rate of billions of tons of fuel every second. Finally every star in the universe will exhaust its fuel and become dark and cold. The whole universe will be cold and dead and all life would have ceased long before the last death throes of the universe. We witness, how so often, a nova or supernova occurs, and a star very rapidly becomes less orderly, in a gigantic explosion.
The operation of the second law of thermodynamics makes time asymmetrical. That is time goes from past to the present to the future and not vice versa-called the arrow of time.
There appears to be a contradiction between the second law of thermodynamics and life because the very essence of living things is order (negative entropy). Growth of life on earth requires disorder (chaos or positive entropy) always to increase. As the living systems have evolved into ever more complex and elaborate forms, it implies that the level of order has risen. How can this be reconciled with the second law of thermodynamics? There is no contradiction between biology and the second law, because the second law refers always to the total system. As mentioned earlier, it is possible for order to accumulate in one place at the price of entropy (chaos or disorder) generated elsewhere. The living systems are “open” to their surroundings: they are neither completely sealed off or self-contained in any way. The living systems can survive by exchanging energy and material with their environment. So when one draws the entropy balance sheet, one finds that the growth of the order in an organism is paid for by entropy (chaos) in the wider environment. The accumulation of order (negative entropy) can also be observed in inanimate systems too! For example when the crystals grow from a featureless liquid, this represents a local increase in order, but closer inspection reveals that there is a compensatory production of heat, which drives up the entropy of the surrounding material.
When a human being is alive, that person is not isolated from his/her surroundings. That is the person breathes the outside air, consumes food and water from outside, etc., Once the person dies, the body isolates from the surroundings and the corpse decays.
The crucial ingredient for maintaining life is negative entropy (order). The Nobel Prize winning physicist Erwin Schrodinger writes in his book WHAT IS LIFE? (Cambridge University Press, 19146, p. 77): “ An organism (has an) astonishing gift of concentrating a ‘stream of order’ on itself and thus escaping decay into atomic chaos-of ‘drinking orderliness’ from a suitable environment.”
The second law of thermodynamics has been formalized as a natural law, as things in nature tend towards disorder, which is so all pervasive and unfailing. The late Isaac Asimov said “Another way of stating the second law then is: ‘The universe is constantly getting more disorderly!” (Smithsonian Institute Journal, June 1970, p.6)
We can witness the operation of the second law in our every day life. We have to work hard to straighten a room, but left to itself, it becomes a mess again very quickly and very easily. A house unoccupied will be filled with spiders, cobwebs, insects and decays quickly. In an occupied house, if no one enters a room, it becomes dusty and musty. It is very difficult to maintain houses and machinery, and our own bodies in perfect working order, otherwise it is easy to let them deteriorate. In fact, if one does nothing, then everything deteriorates, collapses, breaks down, wears out- all by itself-that is what the Second Law of Thermodynamics is all about.
According to the second law: “Left to themselves things (including humans) will go from bad to worse.” There are plenty of examples for this: undisciplined child, Government without opposition, employees without supervisors, banks and homes without security and scrutiny, pupils without monitors, cross roads without traffic lights, a woman with a non-mahram man in a room without supervision, and one can go on and on.
To survive one has to work against entropy (chaos or disorder). I had witnessed the death of a young Muslim girl in a developing country, who always remained in her bed (24 hours a day). The only thing she did apart from consuming food and going to the bathroom was to lie down in her bed or read novels in her bed.
Those were the days without TV, cable TV or Dish Antennas. Unfortunately, she died at the young age of 18.
IMPACT OF ISLAM ON LIFE
One can construe that people who are in conformity with the second law tend to be lazy, couch potatoes, procrastinators, don’t work or work less, waste time and materials, sleep much, unproductive, undisciplined, take life as it comes, watch things happen, helpless, waywardness, indulge in habits harmful to themselves and others (smoking, drinking, drug abuse, etc.), self-centered, selfish, deafness to others’ call, slothfulness in service, indifferent to the needs of others.
O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance
And idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of
Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that
Ye may succeed. Satan seeketh only to cast among
You enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and
Games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance
Of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done?
……….Qur’an, 5: 90-91.
Here the Qur’an clearly warns us from indulging in harmful habits.
In behavior and temperament they have negative behavior, commit sins of impulse, show resentment under rebuke, impatient, thoughtless, proud, pessimistic, uncharitable, apathetic, falsify, slackness in self-discipline and complacency in unworthy habits, easily get provoked, instantly become angry, fight and retaliate instantly. They do not show interest in productivity, remain illiterate and do not struggle to get out of poverty. In character they lie frequently and are dishonest and complain a lot and do plenty of backbiting and slander the innocent. They spend more time in sedentary activities, have a binge for food and love making. The net result of such activities is deterioration of morals and finally death. These are the classic examples of Princes and Princess we studied in History and also one can witness in contemporary times of people who are descendants of very rich families or Royal families.
Whoso commits sin, commits it only
Against himself. Allah is ever Knower, Wise.
-------- Qur’an, 4:111
………Calamitous is the exchange for evil-doers!
-- Qur’an, 18: 50
ROLE OF ISLAM
The religion of Islam is a savior of humanity as it makes a true Muslim to get rid of all the above mentioned characteristics and traits and other undesirable and harmful things. To survive, Islam makes a Muslim to work against entropy (chaos or disorder).
O ye who believe! Follow not the footsteps
Of the devil. Unto whomsoever follows the footsteps
Of the devil, lo! He commands filthiness and wrong.
Had it not been for the grace of Allah and
His mercy unto you, not one of’ you would ever
Have grown pure. But Allah causes whom
He will to grow. And Allah is Hearer, Knower.
……………..Qur’an, 24: 21
Let us look at the life of’ Prophet Muhammad (SAS). In his book The 100 the Most Influential persons in History, Michael Hart lists Prophet Muhammad (SAS) as number one. Many great men, messengers and prophets came to this world, of all why Prophet Muhammad (SAS) is chosen to be number one. For one thing he had an impeccable character and secondly he struggled throughout his life until death, against entropy. As a prophet and messenger of Allah he could have easily spent all his life sitting in his mosque in prayers, meditation and Zikr.
He was not content with the five pillars of Islam, contrast this to his Ummah today throughout the world. He emphasized on what is known as the sixth pillar of Islam-Jihad. Unfortunately, both Muslims and non-Muslims interpret Jihad as holy war. Jihad in one’s own life is very important for a Muslim.
The Seerah of the Prophet and the five pillars of Islam together with Jihad are most essential not only for the Muslims but also for the whole of humanity to survive. The practice of Islamic principles which are time tested and borne fruit to the fact that these principles will make a human being rise to the highest level he/she can reach and brings good in this life and good in the Hereafter. The society and the nation, for that matter the whole world will reach a stage of utopia -devoid of war, crime, injustice, but with full of peace, tranquillity, justice, equality to all. These ideals are not easy to achieve; they come by working against entropy or chaos.
THE FIVE PILLARS
The first pillar is the Shahada (witness) or recitation of the Kalima: "There is no deity but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."
There is a profound meaning and truth in this first pillar and many treatises have been written on this subject.
Some ask the question why should we recite the second half of the Kalima, viz., Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. My own understanding is that Prophet Muhammad (SAS) was chosen as the instrument of Allah to transmit the Qur’an to mankind and the Qur’an is the last Testament of Allah and the foundation of Islam and a book of guidance to mankind.
Secondly study of Seerah of Muhammad is very
important as he lived the Qur’an. If Qur’an is the theory, then the life of
Muhammad (SAS) is the practice of’ the Qur’an. Many religious founders came to
this world, but none showed how to live in peace and how to live in war, how to
live with one wife and how to live with many wives, how to live in poverty and
to live in luxury. How to lead a spiritual life and how to lead a worldly life,
how to be a prophet and how to be a statesman, and one can go on and on. He is
not only a messenger of Allah, but also he is a hero and role model to all
Muslims. But unfortunately, some Muslims go to the extent of imitating
only his physical features/bodily attributes rather than his guidance,
spiritual, sociological and intellectual achievements.
THE SECOND PILLAR
The second pillar is Salat or contact prayer. Many books are written on the virtues of Salat. Here it will be examined in the context of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Before performing the Salat, one has to do Wudu. Wudu is not only hygienic and washes away dust and disease causing germs but also it refreshes the mind to face Allah (SWT). The problem comes when it is winter and one does not have access to warm water. This problem is acute during Fajr Salat (Morning Prayer) because the cold environment and sleep keep us at a maximum level of entropy. At this time, one really has to work against entropy to get up from bed, go to the bathroom and do the wudu and reach the Masjid (Mosque) in time.
When one performs the salat one benefits from the physical activity as well as the spiritual activity. There are benefits to the physical body as well as spiritual and mental benefits. After salat one should attain a state of calmness, peace and tranquillity, free from worries, negative thoughts, anxiety, depression, etc. Performing salat at fixed hours instills in us discipline and increases will power. In short, salat makes us disciplined individuals to work against entropy in any form. Salat prepares us to do good and ward off evil. Allah (SWT) says:
Whosoever does right, whether male or female
And is a believer, him verily We shall quicken
With good life, and We shall pay them a recompense
In proportion to the best of what they used to do
……….Qur’an, 16: 97
But he who turns away from remembrance of
Me, his will be a narrow life, and I shall
Bring him blind to the assembly on the
Day of Resurrection. ……..Qur’an, 20: 124
THE THIRD PILLAR
The third pillar is Siyam which is the obligatory fasting during the month of Ramadan for healthy individuals and it is exempt for those who are sick and travelers.
Many scholars have written on the virtues of’ Siyam. There are many medical, health, and spiritual benefits of fasting to the individual. However, when viewed from the context of the theme of this article it is the strengthening and increasing the “will power” and steadfastness of the fasting individual. These are one of the most powerful ingredients of our personality that should be cultivated and nurtured. Without these one cannot achieve success in life and one will easily succumb to the temptations of life or entropy. Hence Siyam prepares us to do good and ward off evil.
who do good in this world,
THE FOURTH PILLAR
The fourth pillar is called Zakat, which is loosely defined as charity. Zakat means purification, and it is the purification of’ one’s wealth. There are many articles and books available on this subject emphasizing on who should give Zakat and who should receive it. It is simplified as 1/40th or 2.5 % of the nest assets one owns.
There are many benefits of Zakat both to the giver and the society. The giver of Zakat develops feelings of sharing and making others happy and experiences the virtues of sacrifice. The net benefit to the society and nation is it prevents riots, revolutions, civil wars, anarchy, and wars. History shows that those who do not have snatch away from those who have through force. Simple riots results in loss of life and property (entropy). Thus Zakat is an important ingredient to establish social justice. Imagine what will happen if the welfare system and the social security benefits are removed in the United States. Social justice preserves life and property and it is negative entropy. Hence Zakat prepares us to establish social justice to enjoy life and property. Therefore Zakat is a good action that wards off evil- death and destruction or entropy.
Lo! Allah is with those who keep their
Duty unto Him and those who are doers of good.
………Qur’an, 16: 128
THE FIFTH PILLAR
Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. Hajj is obligatory on those who can afford it financially and who have good physical and mental health. Approximately 2. 5 million Muslims out of 1.4 billion are performing Hajj each year. Hajj has no parallel in any religion. It is the largest international congress in the world. It has great sociological benefits, and at the same time it offers immense spiritual benefits to the Muslims. It transforms the heart and soul of the Muslim. An excellent example is Malcolm X (Shaheed Al-Hajj Malik Al-Shabazz) whose wrong belief changed instantaneously and transformed him into a vigorous and gallant Mujahid to fight for his and his Muslim brothers’ rights. He came to the right path and became a doer of good and warded off evil (entropy).
Performing Hajj is extremely difficult particularly in summer months for those who are not rich or those who cannot buy the Deluxe or Super Deluxe Package. It is said there is more blessing when Hajj is performed with hardship by enduring heat, hunger, thirst, discomfort, inconvenience, etc. as these are essential ingredients to work against entropy.
Wise people say, “NO GAINS WITHOUT PAINS.” and “Easy come, Easy Go.” If you don’t use it, you lose it- this is very pertinent to skills, intellect and wealth.
To work against entropy, we have to perform good deeds or “Amilu ssaalihati.” Allah (SWT) says:
Those of the believers who sit still, other than
Those who have a (disabling) hurt, are not on an
Equality with those who strive in the way of Allah
With their wealth and lives. Allah hath conferred
On those who strive with their wealth and lives a
Rank above the sedentary. Unto each Allah hath
Promised good, but He hath bestowed on those who
Strive a great reward above the sedentary….. Qur’an,_4: 95
By internalizing the five pillars of Islam and Jihad the Muslims converted the impossible into the possible. How can one say this? What is the proof that Islam and Islamic way of life is the solution to the problems of humanity facing today? The following answer should drive home the point particularly to the Muslims and to the non-Muslims in general.
Prophet Muhammad (SAS) was able to unite the Arab tribes who had been torn by revenge, rivalry, and internal fights, and produced a strong nation, that acquired and ruled simultaneously the two known empires (two Super Powers) at that time, namely the Persian and Byzantine Empires. The Islamic Empire extended from the Atlantic Ocean on the West to the borders of China on the East. Only 80 years after the death of their Prophet the Muslims crossed to Europe to rule Spain for more than 700 years. The Muslims preserved the cultures of the conquered lands. The Islamic Empire for more than 1,000 years remained the most advanced and civilized nation in the world. This is because Islam stressed the importance and respect of learning, forbade destruction, developed in Muslims the respect for authority and discipline, and tolerance for other religions. The Muslims recognized excellence and hungered intellectually. By the tenth century their zeal and enthusiasm for learning resulted in all essential Greek writings being translated into Arabic in Damascus, Cairo, Baghdad. Arabic became the international language of learning and diplomacy. The Muslims became scientific innovators with originality and productivity. The rise of Muslims to the zenith of civilization lasted over a thousand years. During this millennium Muslims contributed vastly to the enhancement of arts, science and cultural growth of mankind. They hit the source ball of knowledge over the fence to Europe. At the apex of its glory around the tenth century, Cordoba, the capital of Muslim Spain, had pavements, street lighting, three hundred public baths, parks, palaces, one hundred thousand houses and seventy libraries. There were close to half million books in a single library whereas the whole of France contained much less than this figure. Islamic medicine is one of the most famous and best-known facets of Islamic civilization, and in which the Muslims most excelled. For example they performed comp1icated eye surgery 600 years earlier than in Europe. The Muslims were the great torchbearers of international knowledge. Europeans acknowledge that the Muslims are the intellectual forebears of the Europeans and responsible for the European Renaissance. Other examples are that the Muslims had used paper 200 years before Europe, invented spherical trigonometry in the late 10th century, solved equations of the third and fourth degree, binomials to the nth degree, and developed differential and integral mathematics. They discovered the force of gravitation, blood circulation, laws of motion, and even developed the theory of evolution and taught it in their universities. They measured the circumference and radius of the earth and value for specific gravities correct to three decimal places almost a thousand years ago. There is a hardly a field of knowledge where Muslims did not research, think, or investigate and explore or invent something exemplary.
Alas! Today the Muslims are at the bottom, as they have succumbed to the second law of thermodynamics and are unable to work against entropy, because they lost the spirit of Islam.
“.... But if there come unto you from
Me a guidance then whoso follows
My guidance, he will not go astray nor come to grief
Qur’an, 20: 123
He (Satan) said: My Lord! Because Thou has sent
Me astray, I (Satan) verily shall adorn the path
Of error for them (mankind) in the earth and shall
Mislead them everyone, save such of them as are
Thy perfectly devoted slaves ……
Lo! As for My slaves, you (Satan) have no power
Over any of them, except such of the froward (disobedient, perverse) as
Follow thee. Lo! For all such, hell will be the
One may be tempted to say "Is Satan the
personification of entropy?" Allahu 'A'alamu Bilssawaab.
(1) Atkins, PW.: THE SECOND LAW, published by W H Freeman & Co., New York, NY 1995
(2) Fermi, Enrico.: THERMODYNAMICS. Dover Publications, Mineola, New York, 1937
(3) Van Ness, H.C.: UNDERSTANDING THERMODYNAMICS, Dover Publications, Mineola, New York, 1983
(4) Abbott, MM., Van Ness, Hendrick.: SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF THERMODYNAMICS with Applications. McGraw Hill Publishers Co., New York, NY 10011, 1989.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this essay are the opinion of the author of this essay alone and should not be taken to represent the views of any other person or the Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc.
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