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By Jasser Auda


Jasser Auda is the director of al-Maqasid Research Centre in the Philosophy of the Islamic Law (Markaz Derasat Maqasid al-Shari`ah al-Islamiyyah) in London, UK. He has a PhD in Systems from University of Waterloo, Canada, and is currently a PhD candidate in Theology, Religous and Islamic Studies Department, University of Wales, UK, where he writes a thesis on the Philosophy of Islamic Law. He has written a Masters thesis in the Islamic American University, Michigan, USA, on the fundamentals of Islamic Law, specifically the significance of the purposes/maqasid of the Islamic rulings. He has volunteered as Imam in Toronto, Canada, lectured on Islam in a variety of forums and countries, and translated two of his late Sheikh, Muhammad Al-Ghazaly’s books, namely, Islam in the West: How we plan for it?, and Muslim Women Between Backward Traditions and Modern Innovations.  His Email contact:



Regarding the relationship between Muslims and the People of the Book, what the Qur'an has mentioned about them is what every Muslim takes for matters of belief. I will basically quote the Qur'an to make the following few points:


God made it part of true belief to believe in the message of Moses (peace be upon him), and all prophets, and that there is 'guidance and light' in the Torah. God said in the Qur'an what means:


*{Verily, it is We (God) who revealed the Torah, wherein there was guidance and light. On its strength did the prophets, who had surrendered themselves unto God, deliver judgment unto those who followed the Jewish faith; and so did the [early] men of God and the rabbis, inasmuch as some of God's writ had been entrusted to their care; and they [all] bore witness to its truth. Therefore, [O Children of Israel,] hold not men in awe, but stand in awe of Me; and do not barter away My messages for a trifling gain…}* (Al- Ma'idah 5:44)


God also said that Jesus (peace be upon him) is merely following footsteps of earlier prophets who preached the Torah, and that Jesus' Gospel was also 'guidance and light'. The Qur'an says what means:


*{And We caused Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow in the footsteps of those [earlier prophets], confirming the truth of whatever there still remained of the Torah; and We vouchsafed unto him the Gospel, wherein there was guidance and light, confirming the truth of whatever there still remained of the Torah, and as a guidance and admonition unto the God-conscious.}* (Al-Ma'idah 5:46)


In the same context, Muhammad, the Final Messenger, was told what means:


*{And unto thee [O Muhammad] have We vouchsafed this divine writ, setting forth the truth, confirming the truth of earlier revelations…}* (Al-Ma'idah 5:48)


So, earlier revelations are all part of God's revealed truth. However, God made it clear in the Qur'an that People of the Book are not one homogeneous entity. Like the followers of every religion, there are good people and there are otherwise.


*{[But] they are not all alike: among the People of the Book there are upright people, who recite God's messages throughout the night, and prostrate themselves [before Him]. They believe in God and the Last Day, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and vie with one another in doing good works: and these are among the righteous. And whatever good they do, they shall never be denied the reward thereof: for, God has full knowledge of those who are conscious of Him. [But behold,] as for those who are bent on denying the truth - neither their worldly possessions nor their children will in the least avail them against God…}* (Aal-`Imran 3:113-116)


But in any case, Muslims are ordered to deal with all People of the Book in the best terms. Even arguing with them should be in the "best manner." The Qur'an orders Muslims to do so by repeatedly saying what means:


*{And do not argue with the People of the Book otherwise than in a most kindly manner…}* (Al-`Ankabut 29:46)


The Qur'anic message with the People of the Book is a message of peace. Here is God's commands, which say what means:


*{Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of [your] religion, and have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely Allah loves the doers of justice.}* (Al-Mumtahanah 60:8)


However, the next verse clearly states what means:


*{God only forbids you to turn in friendship towards those who fight against you because of [your] faith, and drive you forth from your homelands, or aid [others] in driving you forth: and as for those [from among you] who turn towards them in friendship; it is they, they who are truly wrongdoers!}* (Al-Mumtahanah 60:9)


So, therefore, the issue is not the religion of Moses or Jesus, which every Muslim confirms to their truth. The issue is whether the People of the Book will accept good faith and friendship or will *{drive you forth from your homelands}*.


But there is always hope. The message of peace is still valid if there is an intention of peace. I will quote the Qur'an once more, when the Creator says what means:


*{But if they incline to peace, incline to it as well, and place your trust in God: verily, He alone is All-Hearing, All-Knowing!}* (Al-Anfal 8:61)


However, the next verse states what means:


*{But should they seek but to deceive thee by their show of peace - behold, God is enough for thee! He it is Who has strengthened thee with His victory, and by giving thee believing followers.}* (Al-Anfal 8:62)


Now, regarding 9/11 and similar attacks on innocent people, yes, I agree with you that Prophet Muhammad would have never condoned such acts. In one of the battles, when he, peace be upon him, saw an old woman who was killed by Muslim soldiers, he shouted in anger:


"Why was she killed? Was she a fighter? She does not look like a fighter! Why was she killed?!"


So, as a Muslim, this is a lesson for me to differentiate between combatants and innocent civilians. This is even in the middle of a battlefield, let alone in peaceful cities or communities.


May God promote the voices of wisdom from all sides in order to bring about peace. Amen.


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