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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Rays of Faith Weekend 2 Notes

-- Saturday Sept 8th 2007 --


What are the first two principles?

1. The Pillars of Al-Qadar
2. Allah is the creator of all things

What does the following verse mean:

Yea, in their own (eyes) will become manifest what before they concealed. But if they were returned, they would certainly relapse to the things they were forbidden, for they are indeed liars. (6:28)

It shows that Allah knows what would have happened even if things happened in another way.  This is the vastness of His knowledge.

Two types of evil things happen: sins and calamities.

What are the benefits of evil things?

- To raise the level of a believer
- For sins, after repentance your level is higher
- Calamities erase sins
- Calamities are an invitation to turn back to Allah
- Calamities can be a punishment in this life before the Akhirah

Principles of Belief in Al-Qadar

Third Principle: Allah's Will

Allah's will (mashee'ah) and wisdom (hikmah) are the reason behind all of His Actions.  His will and wisdom are based on His knowledge.

Another word for will is "iraadah".  In the Qur'an usually for things connected to wisdom Allah used the word shaa'a, but when relating to creating worldly things the word araada.

As much as you have knowledge you will have wisdom.  If you are sent to an island that you have never been to, it will be difficult for you to make wise decisions or wise statements because you don't have knowledge of the place or people.  If you can imagine Allah's knowledge, you can imagine His wisdom.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that the scholars at the time of fitnah they can see the evil in it when it approaches.  But the average person can see the evil in it only after it passed.

Don't ever question Allah (swt), because His knowledge is greater.  Don't think you can figure out every single wisdom behind every single action.  If you claim this you are saying that your knowledge is equal.

We know that Allah does not do anything or legislate anything unless there is wisdom behind it.  Also, it's because Allah wanted it to happen it.

But you cannot will, unless Allah wills.  Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise. (Qur'an 76:30)

The attributes All-Knowing and All-Wise are usually mentioned together in the Qur'an.

When Allah mentions in Surah Nisaa' how to divide the inheritence, he ends the ayah with these attributes.  The legislation comes from His wisdom and knowledge.

Everything that exists does so because of a wisdom and because Allah wants it to.  Also, everything that does not exist or happen is because of His wisdom and will.  For example, if someone wants a son and only gets daughters, there is a wisdom behind it and Allah does not want it to happen.

One of the major differences between Ahl As-Sunnah and other sects is that we say that something happened or didn't happen because Allah wanted it in that way for a reason, a wisdom.  Other sects say that it is only because of His will and without a reason.  Some even go to the extreme of saying that if one believes it is for a reason is against Islam.

We have a more positive view of Allah.  Others will say "because Allah wanted to" and that's it, while we say "because Allah wanted to for a reason".

Allah has the ability to do things without a reason.  However, it does not happen this way because Allah does things in the most perfect of ways.

When Allah wanted to save Musa (R), He ordered his mother to feed him, and put him in the river.  Then Allah returned him to his mother.  He could have just made the baby invisible, or make the people skip or forget his house.  But what is more perfect?  Allah saved him through the very people who wanted to kill him.  This way he grew up not as a slave, so his motivation for conveying the message would not be to rebel or have a revolution.

Allah establishes wisdom in four ways:

1. By stating that he is the most wise.  Hakeem comes form the word haakim, which is ruler.  It means he rules His creation with wisdom.  Allah gives creation some wisdom, how can he do so without having wisdom?

Perfect wisdom (this Quran), but (the preaching of) warners benefit them not (Qur'an 54:5)

And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al­Hikmah (wisdom and religious understanding, etc.) saying: "Give thanks to Allah," and whoever gives thanks, he gives thanks for (the good of) his ownself. And whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is All­Rich (Free of all wants), Worthy of all praise. (Qur'an 31:12)

We made his kingdom strong and gave him Al-Hikmah (Prophethood, etc.) and sound judgement in speech and decision. (Qur'an 38:20)

2. Allah denies doing anything without wisdom or reason.  The disbeliever views Allah in the opposite way, and they will be punished for this.

And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them without purpose! That is the consideration of those who disbelieve! Then woe to those who disbelieve (in Islamic Monotheism) from the Fire! (Qur'an 38:27)

"Did you think that We had created you in play (without any purpose), and that you would not be brought back to Us?" (Qur'an 23:115)

3. Allah also denies that He will do anything unjust, because doing things unjustly contradicts wisdom.  Justice is to put things where they belong, so if someone is not just they are not wise.

Shall We then treat the (submitting) Muslims like the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists and disbelievers, etc.)? (Qur'an 68:35)

Shall We treat those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the same as those who do mischief on earth? Shall We treat those who guard against evil, the same as those who turn aside from the right? (Qur'an 38:28)

How can you justify making people who do evil the same as those who do good?

4. In Arabic there is a certain format which means you did it for a reason (the word "li").  For example:

And I (Allah) created not the jinns and humans except they should worship Me (Alone). (Qur'an 51:56)

And have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water. That We may produce therewith corn and vegetations, (Qur'an 78:14-15)

Another format is the phrase "min ajl", which only occurs once.

Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. And indeed, there came to them Our Messengers with clear proofs, evidences, and signs, even then after that many of them continued to exceed the limits (e.g. by doing oppression unjustly and exceeding beyond the limits set by Allah by committing the major sins) in the land!. (Qur'an 5:32)

Another format is the word "la'alla", meaning they might.

And not an Ayah (sign, etc.) We showed them but it was greater than its fellow, and We seized them with torment, in order that they might turn [from their polytheism to Allah's Religion (Islamic Monotheism)]. (Qur'an 43:48)

Another format is using the word "kay".  Allah restored Musaa to his mother so that she wouldn't grieve.

"When your sister went and said: 'Shall I show you one who will nurse him?' So We restored you to your mother, that she might cool her eyes and she should not grieve. Then you did kill a man, but We saved you from great distress and tried you with a heavy trial. Then you stayed a number of years with the people of Madyan (Midian). Then you came here according to the fixed term which I ordained (for you), O Musa (Moses)! (Qur'an 20:40)

Allah also says sometimes that He didn't do something for a reason.

Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen, and even if He had made them listen, they would but have turned away, averse (to the truth). (Qur'an 8:23)

And Allah would not punish them while you (Muhammad SAW) are amongst them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah's) Forgiveness. (Qur'an 8:33)

There is a difference between the word wisdom in the science of 'Aqeedah, and the word wisdom in the word Usool Al-Fiqh.  In Usool Al-Fiqh, the word 'illah is used for the reason, and the word hikmah is the wisdom.  'Illah can be used to legislate, but hikmah cannot.  For example, the reason you shorten prayer is because you travel, but the wisdom is because you get tired.  However, if you don't get tired because of modern technology can you cancel the rule?  No, because the reason is you are traveling.  For 'Aqeedah we use the word wisdom for both the reason and the wisdom.

The Fourth Principle: Tawakkul in Allah while Taking the Means

If you know in your hear that everything happens for a reason, you will be content with whatever Allah has ordained because you know everything He does if or a reason and you trust in Him.  This is called Tawakkul.

A tawkeel is someone who you trust to represent you and take care of your needs, like a woman in the marriage process.

You know that Allah is the most capable, the most wise, the most knowledgeable, and you put your affairs in the hands of Allah with full trust and tranquility.  This is Tawakkul.

Tawakkul includes knowledge of the heart and action of the heart.  The knowledge is dependent on one's knowledge and certainty of Allah.  The act is in the heart's tranquility and contentment.

However, tawakkul requires taking whatever means possible.  "Al-Akhdh bil-Asbaab" is trying to achieve the physical means.  It is doing what it takes to make things happen and removing the hindrances that prevent them from taking place.

If someone is thirsty, they shouldn't just say "I trust in Allah".  They should also go try to find some water.  When Maryam need food, she shook the tree.  It was the most she could do, and Allah brought the dates down.  He could have brought the dates down without her actions, but taking whatever means possible goes with Tawakkul.

This is unique in Ahl As-Sunnah.  It is not like atheists who only look at the means, like Qaaroon when he became rich.  Others go to the opposite extreme, where they only have trust and don't take the means.  Umar (R) saw someone who was always in the masjid, and he asked him how he supports his family.  The man said he makes du'a.  Umar (R) said the clouds never rain silver and gold.  If you want to make money and support your family, you have to work.

We believe that means have actual effects not imaginary.

A few Ash'aris said that means have imaginary effects.  If you put your hand on the fire, the fire does not burn it.  Your hand burns by itself when it happens to be above the fire.  If you use a knife to cut an apple, the knife does not cut it.  It happens to get cut while the knife is there.  These ideas have been rejected by the scholars.

Our actions can be classified into two categories: by choice and no choice.  There are certain things you don't have a choice in, such as being born and your skin color.  Other actions like gaining weight, attending class, etc. you have a choice.

Matters by choice must be based on two pillars:  At-Tawakkul and taking precautions.

And Musa (Moses) said: "O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims (those who submit to Allah's Will)." (Qur'an 10:84)

It is part of the Mercy of Allah that thou dost deal gently with them Wert thou severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about thee: so pass over (Their faults), and ask for (Allah's) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then, when thou hast Taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him). (Qur'an 3:159)

Two men of those who feared (Allah and) on whom Allah had bestowed His Grace [they were Yusha' (Joshua) and Kalab (Caleb)] said: "Assault them through the gate, for when you are in, victory will be yours, and put your trust in Allah if you are believers indeed." (Qur'an 5:23)

Allah mentioned Tawakkul so many times in the Qur'an and made it part of Iman.  What is interesting is that there are no verses that directly orders us to take precautions.  Why?  Because the nature of human beings is that they take precautions.  You don't need a verse in the Qur'an to say if you are hungry go eat.

The Prophet (S) said to take the means.  The Qur'an also did so indirectly.

O Prophet (Muhammad SAW)! Keep your duty to Allah, and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites (i.e., do not follow their advices). Verily! Allah is Ever AllKnower, AllWise. And follow that which is inspired in you from your Lord. Verily, Allah is WellAcquainted with what you do. And put your trust in Allah, and Sufficient is Allah as a Wakil (Trustee, or Disposer of affairs). (Qur'an 31:1-3)

Why is Tawakkul one of the greatest acts of worship?

1. It is because you have so much belief in Allah that He is powerful and in control.

2. It is also because you know in your heart that whatever Allah wills happens, and whatever He doesn't will does not happen.  "la hawlaa wa laa quwwata illaa Billah"

3. You show that by depending on Allah and putting your trust in Him that you are admitting how powerful He is and how weak you are, how knowledgeable He is and how limited you are.  This is why the Prophet (S) used to teach his companions the Salah of Istikhaarah as he used to teach them Qur'an.

What does Istikhaarah mean?  It means that after you make a decision you ask Allah to bless the decision and if it is bad for you that Allah prevent it from happening.  You make your decision with your limited means, and then you put trust in Allah.  You then take the course which you think is best.  Don't expect an angel to come in the middle of the night and tell you what to do, that is not the way it works.  One of the benefits of istikhaarah is that if initially it was not the right thing to do Allah will make it better for you.

Scholars say you will never regret a decision if you make it based on two things: istikhaarah and consultation.

Precautions and means is not limited to materialistic and physical.  Du'a is also a means of change.  When you are sick one of the means to get better is to make du'a.  Another means is to donate for the sake of Allah, the Prophet (S) said it will protect you from dying in a bad way or place.  Sadaqah will also lead to increase in wealth, besides the physical means you take.

4. Tawakkul also leads to being patience.


The Prophet (S) said to tie your camel and then trust in Allah.

The Prophet (S) said that there are no contagious diseases.  What does this mean?  In another hadith He said escape from a leper like you would from a lion.  He also said if there is a village where there is plague, do not enter it.  In one statement it seems like he says diseases don't transfer, but in the others it is the opposite?

This is because in the first hadith the Prophet (S) saying that diseases transfer with the will of Allah, not by itself.  This is why you can be next to a person who has flu and not get flu, while someone else does.  Diseases do not happen by themselves.  If a camel gets a disease from another one, where did the first one get it?  It happened by the will of Allah.

The Fifth Principle: Free Will

What is the problem with free will?  People say how can we have free will when everything is already written?  A person might say when something bad happens don't blame me, it is from Allah.  Others will say what's the point in working hard for paradise when it is already determined?

The problem comes from different sides.  One thing is if Allah creating everything, the people say He should be responsible for everything, not me.  How is this problem solved?

Allah (swt) created you, and created in you a brain, a heart, eyes, ears, tongue, and something inside called will and determination.  Then He let you decide how to use it.  So your actions were created by Allah in an indirect way.  He created your body and everything around you, but it is your actions because you are the ones who used these tools to do these actions.  So the only one responsible is you, not Allah.

If you buy a gun from Walmart and kill people, can you blame Walmart and gun manufacturers for your actions?  No one would accept it.  You are the one who used it in the wrong way.  Nobody forced you to do it.  Similarly, Allah created you and you used the tools He has given you in the wrong way.  Allah did not force you to do so, you are the only one responsible for it.

Allah out of His mercy told you the good in what you can do.  If you wear hijaab, every single second you are out of the house you are in an act of worship.  Brothers do not get this chance.  So if you don't wear hijaab, don't blame Allah  It is because YOU don't want to do so.

You have free will in the actions of choice.  When you do something out of your will, Allah by His will allows you to do so for a reason.

But you cannot will, unless Allah wills. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise. (Qur'an 76:30)

This is why when the Prophet (S) was asked why we do actions when it is written, he said to do what you are ordered and everyone will do what is in their destiny.  The point here is to DO the actions.

The Sixth Principle At-Tawfeeq and Al-Khudlaan

Al-Hidayah is guidance.  Al-Khudlaan means to be left to oneself.

The connection between Allah and ourselves is always there.  We have du'a and Salah which is a connection that is always available.  A believer should always be in contact with Allah.

The Prophet (S) made du'a to Allah that he not leave his soul to himself even for a moment.

You do what Allah asks you to do because you know that Allah wants good for you, and at the same time you make du'a that Allah does not leave you to yourself.  You have complete trust in Allah that if He helps you then no one can do anything to you, and you know that if he leaves you to yourself you are powerless.

And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh­hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allah's) Forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs. Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him). If Allah helps you, none can overcome you; and if He forsakes you, who is there after Him that can help you? And in Allah (Alone) let believers put their trust. (Qur'an 3:159-160)

Imam Ahmad reported another hadith where the Prophet (S) said don't let them depend on me so that I will be weak.  Only let them depend on Allah.

When you are not sincere and are not ready to take the step, this is when Allah leaves you to yourself.  But if you are ready and take a step, Allah comes to you.  The only way He leaves you to yourself is if you turn your back from Him.

From Anas, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say: "Allah the Almighty has said: 'O son of Adam, so long as you call upon Me, and hope in Me, I shall forgive you for what you have done, and I shall not mind. O son of Adam, were your sins to reach the clouds in the sky and were you then to ask forgiveness of Me, I shall forgive you. O son of Adam, were you to come to Me with an earthful of sins and were you then to face Me, without having associated anything with Me, I shall grant you an earthful of pardon.'" (At-Tirmidhi)

Whoever finds good on the Day of Judgment should be grateful to Allah, whoever finds bad should not blame anyone except themselves.

Imam An-Nawawi died in his thirties, look at the prevalence of his book Riyadh As-Saliheen.  Allah (swt) is the one who guided him to do it and blessed his actions, this is why the the Mu'min always asks Allah to bless all things that happen.

'Isa said that Allah blessed him:

"And He has made me blessed wheresoever I be, and has enjoined on me Salat (prayer), and Zakat, as long as I live." (Qur'an 19:31)


Do you make istikhaarah when you are indecisive and need to make a decision or make a decision and do istikhaarah?

- The shaykh says the first does not make sense to him, given the wording of the du'a.  When you have a decision to make, you choose whatever you think is best and do istikhaarah.  That way if the choice is bad, Allah will not allow it to happen, or Allah will turn it into good.

-We should still pray istikharah even after making a decision.

The Sixth Principle Continued

Hidaayah can be worldy or religious.

Worldly guidance - He guided Edison to discover electricity, He guided people to invent medicine, or computers.  This type of guidance can be given to Muslims or non-Muslims, or to animals.  This is because it has nothing to do with religion or love for Allah.

Religious Guidance has two types:

1. Hidaayat Al-Bayaan or Al-Irshaad - guidance, education, explanation, information
2. Hidaayat At-Tawfeeq - favor, assistance, granting success

And thus have We, by Our Command, sent inspiration to thee: thou knewest not (before) what was Revelation, and what was Faith; but We have made the (Qur'an) a Light, wherewith We guide such of Our servants as We will; and verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way,- (42:52)

The first type of guidance is that of education, conveying information.  This is the guidance of the Prophets.

It is true thou wilt not be able to guide every one, whom thou lovest; but Allah guides those whom He will and He knows best those who receive guidance. (Qur'an 28:56)

This is the second type of guidance.  Only Allah (swt) has the ability to guide people in their hearts and give them success.  He is the only who opens their hearts for success.

When the Prophet (S) said that if Allah guides someone through you, which type of guidance is it?  It is both.  You convey the message, and if Allah wills He will guide them to Islam and success.

Ibn Al-Qayyim said that there are two more types of guidance on the Day of Judgment.  The believers will be guided to know the way to Jannah, the disbelievers the way to hellfire. 10:9, 37:23

The Seventh Principle: Can Qadar be changed?

We have to look at the Qur'an and Sunnah to answer this question.  Let's start with the following ayah:

And Allah did create you (Adam) from dust, then from Nutfah (male and female discharge semen drops i.e. Adam's offspring), then He made you pairs (male and female). And no female conceives or gives birth, but with His Knowledge. And no aged man is granted a length of life, nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man's life), but is in a Book (AlLauh AlMahfuz) Surely, that is easy for Allah. (Qur'an 35:111)

This means that a person can live longer or less than what was dictated, so it implies that it can be changed.

For each (person), there are angels in succession, before and behind him.They guard him by the Command of Allah. Verily! Allah will not change the good condition of a people as long as they do not change their state of goodness themselves (by committing sins and by being ungrateful and disobedient to Allah). But when Allah wills a people's punishment, there can be no turning back of it, and they will find besides Him no protector. (Qur'an 13:11)

This implies that Allah will change the dictated situation you are in when you do good.

"He (Allah) will forgive you of your sins and respite you to an appointed term. Verily, the term of Allah when it comes, cannot be delayed, if you but knew." (Qur'an 71:4)

This clearly shows that the time of your death can be delayed.

In a hadith, Adam was shown Dawud and he asked Allah how long his life is.  He said 60 years.  Adam asked how long he is supposed to live.  He was told 1000.  So Adam said he would like to give 40 years to Dawud, and it was written.  This shows Qadar was changed.

In Bukhari and Muslim, there is a hadith that if you want to increase your lifespan, then be good to your parents and family.  In another hadith it is said good manners and being good to family.

Nor is there aught of the unseen, in heaven or earth, but is (recorded) in a clear record. (Qur'an 27:75)

He replied: "The knowledge of that is with my Lord, duly recorded: my Lord never errs, nor forgets,- (Qur'an 20:52)

Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth: with Him is the Mother of the Book. (Qur'an 13:39)

Allah mentions the Mother of the Book, which implies that there are other books.

This lead the scholars to discuss whether or not Qadar can be changed.  The Matureed sect said that everything can be changed except a few things, including time of death and place in the hereafter.  The Ash'aris said that nothing can be changed, and all of these ahadith and ayahs are in a metaphorical sense.  Some said living longer means that Allah will bless your time, so you can do in 60 years when others need 100.  Others said your work will remain on this earth after you die as if you are alive.

The opinion of the early scholars is different.  Ibn Abbaas solved the problem in a beautiful way.  Ibn Abbaas said that we have to differentiate between two types of books - the Lawh Mahfooz, and the books that have some things that will happen that the angels carry.  Allah writes every year on Laylatul Qadr what will be written for the year in another book in the hands of the angels, not in the safe tablets.

In the (Night) is made distinct every affair of wisdom, (Qur'an 44:4)

Then you have another book which is the mother of books, which was written before anything was created.  The change will only occur in the books carried by the angels, but not in the safe tablet.  For example, perhaps in the safe tablet it could be mentioned: when you will be born your age will be written as 60 years,  then you will be good to your parents and it will be changed to 65.  The change is not made in the safe tablet because it is already there where no one has access to it, but it will be made in the books carried by the angels.

What is the point in changing what is in the hands of the angels?  The point is that Allah is honoring you.  Allah is showing the value of certain good actions as well.  It also shows that means have a real effect.

The Eight Principle: Religion and Predestination do not Contradict


Creation (Khalq) is not the same as Command (Amr).  Al-Qadar is not equivalent to Ash-Shar' (legislation), and Mashee'ah (Will) is not equal to Mahbbah (Love).

There are four possibilities with will and love: Allah willed or allowed something to happen and loves it, Allah willed or allowed something to happen and doesn't love it, Allah did not will something but loves it, and Allah did not will something and does not love it.

1. People reading Qur'an - willed and loved
2. All the sins taking place on earth - willed but not loved
3. Everyone becoming Muslim or not lying - not willed but loved
4. Muslims becoming pagans - not willed and not loved

Just because Allah allowed you to something does not mean that He loves it or that it is Allows.

There were four groups of people with opinions on this:

Group 1 (Al-Mushrikiyyah): Al-Qadar = Ash-Shar'.  The pagans believed this, that everything happens in the world is ordained and loved by Allah.  They claimed that they were mushrikeen because Allah loved them to be so.

Those who give partners (to Allah) will say: "If Allah had wished, we should not have given partners to Him nor would our fathers; nor should we have had any taboos." So did their ancestors argue falsely, until they tasted of Our wrath. Say: "Have ye any (certain) knowledge? If so, produce it before us. Ye follow nothing but conjecture: ye do nothing but lie." (Qur'an 6:148)

Some extreme Sufi sects take this on, and say that Pharaoh is more of a believer than Musaa, because they say he followed the will of Allah and Musaa didn't.

Group 2 (Al-Ibleesiyyah): Al-Qadar is other than Ash-Shar' and Qadar contradicts the Shar'.  Iblees was the first one who took this view.  Some people who want to follow their desires say this, like they say that if Allah wanted us to lower our gaze then He shouldn't have created beautiful women.  They try to make a contradiction to go against Sharee'ah.  They ask Allah why they were created in a way that they like to sin.

(Iblis) said: "O my Lord! because Thou hast put me in the wrong, I will make (wrong) fair-seeming to them on the earth, and I will put them all in the wrong,- (Qur'an 15:39)

Group 3 (Al-Majoosiyyah): Al-Qadar and Ash-Shar' are different.  If (or when) they contradict we must deny Al-Qadar.  For example, Allah said don't steal, so they say when a person steals Allah does not know about.

Group 4 (Ahl As-Sunnah): Al-Qadar and Ash-Shar' are different, but not everything that Allah wills does He love.

Can you blame Al-Qadar for your actions?  No, because you have free will to do good actions or bad actions.  Shaytaan tried this argument before, and it was not accepted.

Allah (swt) made it clear that the actions you do by your own choice are your responsibility, however if something happens without choice then you are not held responsible.  For example, the Prophet (S) said that if you are fasting and eat or drink out of forgetfulness, Allah (swt) has fed you.  Your fast is not broken and you are not held responsible.

If you do something when you are asleep, you are not responsible for it.

There is also a hadith where a man is lost in the desert without his camel, and when he finds it he is so happy he said "O Allah you are my slave and I am your lord".  He said it backwards

What about the hadith where Musaa and Adam debated, and Musaa blamed Adam that we were sent to earth.  Adam said are you blaming me for something Allah wrote 50,000 years before Creation?  The Prophet (S) said Adam won the debate.

The reason is because Musaa did not blame Adam for the sin, but for being sent to earth which is a calamity.

Scholars also say you are not allowed to use Al-Qadar to justify a sin you are doing or about to do.  But you can do so for a sin you repented from.

Belief in Al-Qadar is Part of Tawheed

It is part of Ar-Ruboobiyyah becuase Allah is the Creator of everything.

It is part of Al-Ilaahiyyah because we have to be patient and have Tawakkul.  It is also a worship

It is part of Al-Asmaa and As-Sifaat as there are eight attributes that refer to Al-Qadar and its principles.

Benefits of Belief in Al-Qadar

1. Peace of mind
2. Your concern is not with past or future, but the present.
3. It gives you the will power and determination to move forward in the way of Allah.
4. It teaches you to be modest and humble.
5. It leads to total dependence upon Allah.  You take precautions as much as you can, then depend on Allah.
6. You won't be jealous of people because you know it is the will of Allah.

Remember that Allah is very fair and just.  Do not put yourself in charge of his affairs and ask is it fair for Him to do this or that.  Worry about your own affairs.  Anybody Allah punishes or puts in hellfire deserves it.

This is why we repeat Allahu Akbar.  He is the greatest when it comes to planning, executing, rewarding, punishing, etc.


Is there reward in the akhirah for those who are not Muslims and do humanitarian work?

For someone to be rewarded in akhirah it has to meet three conditions: the person has to be a believer, it has to be done according to the way of the Prophet (S) if it is a religious matter, and it has to be sincerely for the sake of Allah.  For non-Muslims there reward is in this life.  If someone invents something useful then they will be rewarded in this life.

Chapter 6: Belief in the Last Day

Belief in the last day is one of the pillars of Iman.  A person is not a Believer without this.

And who believe in (the Quran and the Sunnah) which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) and in [the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.] which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and Hell, etc.). (2:4)

It is mentioned so many times in the Qur'an.

What does Belief in the Last Day Mean?

It is belief that there will be another life after this one.  There will be a Judgment Day with recompense in Al-Jannah (Paradise) or An-Naar (hellfire).

It is usually mentioned together with belief in Allah.  For example, there is a hadith where the Prophet (S) said whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak good or remain silent.

Approximately one-third of the Qur'an covers the details of the Hereafter.  No other religion has so many details about what will happen.

What are the effects of this belief?

1. It demonstrates the completeness, greatness, and uniqueness of Allah's Names and Attributes.  For example, if you study it you will realize how just Allah is, how merciful Allah is.

There was a woman who lost her baby and looked around everywhere, and finally found him and hugged him.  The Prophet (S) asked the companions if they thought the woman could throw her baby into a fire.  They said no.  He said that Allah is more merciful to us than the mother to her baby.

The Prophet (S) said that only 1 degree of Allah's mercy is sent to this dunya, and 99 is kept for the Day of Judgment.  Everything that happens out of mercy in the entire existence of the universe is only one degree of Allah's mercy.

Sufyan Ath-Thawri said that he never once thought that he would rather have his parents as his judge on the Day of Judgment, he knew that Allah would be more merciful than his own parents to him.

And the Book (of Deeds) will be placed (before you); and thou wilt see the sinful in great terror because of what is (recorded) therein; they will say, "Ah! woe to us! what a Book is this! It leaves out nothing small or great, but takes account thereof!" They will find all that they did, placed before them: And not one will thy Lord treat with injustice. (Qur'an 18:49)

This shows Allah's capability, His ability to document everything, His justice, and His patience.

2. It increases the love for meeting Allah in the hearts of the believers.  When you read about paradise, you look forward to meeting Allah (swt) on the Last Day.

The Prophet (S) said that every time you say "Subhana Allahi wa bi hamdih" Allah will plant a tree for you in Jannah.  A believer looks forward to the reward for all of his actions.

After worshiping Allah and making du'a throughout our lives, we look forward to actually meeting Allah (swt).

3. It establishes a fear from Allah and His punishment to balance out the hope.

Whoever fears the Day of Judgment in this life and acts according to it will be fine on the Day of Judgment.  Whoever has no fear of the Day of Judgment in this life will have fear on the Day of Judgment.

(Saying): "We feed you seeking Allah's Countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you. Verily, We fear from our Lord a Day, hard and distressful, that will make the faces look horrible (from extreme dislikeness to it)." So Allah saved them from the evil of that Day, and gave them Nadratan (a light of beauty) and joy. (Qur'an 76:9-11)

It builds fear that prevents us from doing the wrong thing.  This is why Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that before you say a word, would you like to see it in your record on the Day of Judgment.  Allah is listening to what we say and seeing what we do.

A'ishah (R) said that if the first thing revealed was to not drink or fornicate, no one would have followed it.  What was revealed first was about the Akhirah, Jannah, Jahannum, so when Iman was established in the hearts then it was easy for people to follow.

When a person becomes Muslim or starts practicing, we tend to focus on their appearance.  What about their Iman in Allah?  Has it been strengthened?  Has the person's belief in the Akhirah settled into their heart?

4. It aids a Muslim in hastening towards good deeds.

One of the Taabi'een when he got tired at night of praying, he would hit himself and say to himself that the companions were the only ones with the Prophet (S) in the dunya, I will not let them be the only ones with him on the Day of Judgment.

One scholar was about to go to bed and he touched the warm and soft bed.  He said to it you are so soft and so nice, but the beds in Jannah are softer and nicer.  He would then go and pray.

5. It also aids in patience and perseverance in doing good.

6. It aids in patience in avoiding wrong.

7. It aids in patience during times of hardship.

8. It establishes asceticism towards matters of this life.

The Prophet (S) was asked about the kings of Persia who slept in nice palaces.  He said that this is for them in this life and it is for us in the akhirah.

If we feel we are missing out in something such as sisters dressing up, we should know it is for us in the akhirah as there is no hijab in the Akhirah.

Studying the Last Day also helps us in understanding some of what will happen in the future.  For example, there is a hadith that when Ad-Dajjaal comes a day will be a thousand years.  The Prophet (S) was asked how to pray, and he said to do so every 24 hours.  From this we get rulings for those who live in far northern areas where the sun doesn't set for weeks in terms of praying and fasting.

Names of the Last Day

There are so many names (list mentioned in the book).  This shows that it is so important.

Sub-Topics that Scholars of 'Aqeedah include under this subject

- End of time and its signs
- Death, the Soul, and Life in the grave
- Resurrection
- The Day of Judgment
- Paradise and Hellfire

The Hour

No one knows when the Hour will come

They ask thee about the (final) Hour - when will be its appointed time? Say: "The knowledge thereof is with my Lord (alone): None but He can reveal as to when it will occur. Heavy were its burden through the heavens and the earth. Only, all of a sudden will it come to you." They ask thee as if thou Wert eager in search thereof: Say: "The knowledge thereof is with Allah (alone), but most men know not." (Qur'an 7:187)
The Prophet (S) heard during Israa' Ibrahim and Nuh say that they have no knowledge of the Hour.  They asked 'Isa if he knew, he said he only knew that one day he will be sent down, but not when.

The Hour is Near

Closer and closer to mankind comes their Reckoning: yet they heed not and they turn away. (Qur'an 21:1)

The Hour (of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon is cleft asunder. (Qur'an 54:1)

The Prophet (S) said that he was sent as close to the Day of Judgment as two fingers he held up.  This means either they are very close to each other, or the difference is so small like the difference in the length of the two fingers.

The Hour Falls on a Friday

This is in a hadith reported by Imam Muslim.

Besides that we don't know when it is.  Some scholars tried to predict it, As-Suyootee said that it will be in 1200 AH or 1500 AH.  However it is unacceptable to do so.  He based these on some narrations that have very weak narrators.  Others said that letters in the Qur'an such as alif lam meem represent numbers.  It was common for Arabs in the old days to use letters and words to refer to dates.  When added up, all of these letters make 1500.

Others claim that individual people are given the ability to declare the Day of Judgment, like some people who claim that Abdul Qadir Al-Jilaani was given this authority.

Every generation since the salaf claimed that we are in the end of days.  This is very common in humanity, even Christians say the same.  Definitely we are closer to the Day of Judgment then 1000 years ago, but we don't know how much closer.


If Allah is so merciful, why do we have to pray and work so hard?

Al-Ghazzali gave the best answer.  He says that everyone agrees that Allah is Ar-Razzaaq.  However, everyone goes and works hard to gain their sustenance as opposed to staying at home.  The same goes for His mercy, we should go and work hard in the same way.  The other reason is that Allah ordered us to do these things.  By doing the five pillars it will lead you to do more.  The Prophet (S) was asked why he prayed all night when his sins were forgiven, he said shouldn't I be a thankful servant?

Signs of the Day of Judgment

There are major signs and minor signs of the Day of Judgment.

Minor Signs

Some of the signs have occurred in the past, others are occurring now, and others have not yet occurred.


- Trust will be given to those who are not trustworthy.
- A women will be dressed yet naked.
- 1 person responsible for each women.
- Bedouins will be competing to build towers.
- Slave woman will give birth to master.
- A person will wish to be dead because of the fitnah.
- Euphrates river will dry and show treasurers, people will fight over it, 1 out of 100 will survive.
- Killing will increase to the extent that neither the person killing or the one killed know why.
- Female singers will be common.
- Leaders of Muslims will be the least knowledgeable.
- Alcohol consumptions will be so increased.
- People will commit zina in the streets and the most pious will tell them to do it in the side.
- There will be an abundance of wealth.
- Time goes by very fast.
- Constantinople will be conquered.
- Qur'an will disappear.
- There will be many reciters that will be hypocrites.
- Many people will be able to read and write.
- Markets will be close to each other.  Some said this could also refer to prices, or fashion being everywhere.
- The moon will appear larger.
- Interest will be very widespread.
- The coming of the Prophet (S) and his death.
- A fire will appear next to be Madinah, and people will be able to see the minarets of Busra.
- Stones and animals will speak.
- False Prophets will appear.
- Many liars will come.
- People can travel a long distance without fearing anyone except Allah.
- Ignorance will be so common and knowledge will be rare.
- There will be a lot of earthquakes.
- People will be competing in building expensive masajid.
- Some Muslims will join the mushrikeen and worship idols.
- There were be so much business that the husband and wife will both have businesses.
- Scholars will become rare.
- People will ride something like a saddle above a camel and this saddle will move them to the masajid so close but they won't evey pray 2 rakahs.
- Sudden death will become very common.
- The Arab peninsula will become fertile with rivers.
- A man from Abysinnia will come and destroy the Ka'bah.
- People only will give salaam to those they know.

It is a misconception that all of the minor signs will come and then the major signs.  This is not true.  Some minor signs will occur after major signs, such as the destruction of the Ka'bah and the disappearance of the Qur'an.

Why do we call them minor signs and major signs?  Minor signs are not noticeable by all humans, only some.  Major signs are noticeable by everyone and affect everyone.  They are so clear that everyone will recognize that they are signs of the Day of Judgment.

The Major Signs

There are differences of opinion on the order of the major signs of the Day of Judgment.  Some say that the first will be the sun coming from the west because it is mentioned in a hadith.  In many hadith it seems like the first sign will be Ad-Dajjaal.  When 'Isa comes down some people will believe according to a hadith.  When the sun comes from the west no one can repent anymore.  So it how do we resolved this conflict?

Ibn Hajar said there are two sets of major signs.  One is related to the people on earth, and the other is related to the system of the universe, those that come from the sky.  He said that of those on earth the coming of Dajjaal is the first.  Of those coming from the sky the first is the sun coming from the worst.

The ten major signs:

1. Emergend of Ad-Dajjaal
2. Descent of 'Isa
3. Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj
4-6.  The Three Great Landslides (in the east, the west, and the Arabian peninsula)
7. Ad-Dukhaan (the smoke)
8. The Rising of the Sun from the West
9. The Appearance of the Beast
10. The Great Fire

These are mentioned in a hadith narrated by Hudhayfah.

Are they waiting to see if the angels come to them, or thy Lord (Himself), or certain of the signs of thy Lord! the day that certain of the signs of thy Lord do come, no good will it do to a soul to believe in them then if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its faith. Say: "Wait ye: we too are waiting." (Qu'ran 6:158)

The Prophet (S) said that there are three things that occur that when they come it does not matter if a person believes in them after if they did not before - the emergence of Ad-Dajjaal, the rising of the sun from the west, and the appearance of the Beast.

One of the signs of Ad-Dajjaal is that people do not talk about him anymore.  He will come after Muslims conquer Istanbul.  The previous conquest is not this sign.

Ad-Dajjaal will come during a dry period.  According to hadith, in the first year they will receive only 1/2 of the rain, the next 1/3, and the third no rain.  The believers will survive on Subha Allah, Alhamdulilla, La ilaha illa Allah.  The Dajjaal will come after that.

He will say to the sky rain, and the sky will rain.  He will say to the dead land for vegetation to come out, and all of sudden flowers, fruits, trees come out.  He will raise dead people.  This is why he will be able to deceive so many people.

The Prophet (S) said a person will change his own family members and run to join Ad-Dajjaal.

He will be followed by so many people.  The Prophet (S) said that so many of the people following will be innovators.

Ad-Dajjaal will approach Madinah, and he will stay in a mountain of Madinah and look at the white palace (the Prophet's Masjid).  Then he will be approached by some people and a young boy will say prove you are God.  He will cut him in two and walk between the two pieces, then bring him back to life.  Ad-Dajjaal will ask him if he believes now.  The boy will say I believe you are the false messiah, because of the hadith of the Prophet (S).  This shows that the sunnah of the Prophet (S) will be protected until the Day of Judgment.  It also shows the value of knowing the signs.

Ad-Dajjaal is the only human who claims he is the creator, that is why he is the worst.

The Prophet (S) said no messenger was sent before unless they told their followers to make du'a that they not be tested with Ad-Dajjaal.

Allah provides clear signs that he is the false messiah.  The word Kafir will be written on his own forward, and everyone will be able to read it regardless of language or literacy.  One eye will be like a dry raisin.  If someone comes saying he is God, why wouldn't they fix their own eye.

The Prophet (S) said that if you see Ad-Dajjaal run to the mountains.

The tribe that will resist Ad-Dajjaal most will be Banu Tameem.

'Isa will come at the time of Fajr in Damascus, and will refuse to lead prayer and will pray behind Al-Mahdi.

'Isa will come back and prove that he is the real Messiah and was not killed on the cross and is not God.  The Jews did not believe he was the real Messiah, and he will come back and it will be clear.  The Christians changed their religion and he will destroy the cross.  There will no longer be people of the Book.  Either someone will be a believer and follower of 'Isa or a disbeliever and a follower of the false messiah.  'Isa will kill Ad-Dajjaal. 

The Prophet (S) said that when Ad-Dajjaal opens the door to Masjid Al-Aqsaa he will see 'Isa and run away.  'Isa will catch him nearby and kill him.  After that Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj will be let out and people will run away.

There are four places where Ad-Dajjaal cannot come - Masjid Al-Haraam, Masjid An-Nabawi, Masjid Al-Aqsaa, and Masjid At-Tur in San'aa in Yemen.

After Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj come people will run away to the extent that Madinah will be deserted, and a wolf will come and urinate in the Masjid of the Prophet (S) on his mimbar and no one will clean it because they are afraid.

An insect will then go through the ears and kill them.  'Isa will ask someone to go investigate, they will find them all dead.  'Isa will make du'a to Allah to clean the earth from their presence, and a rain will come and wash them away.  After that 'Isa will leave 7 years and they will be the most peaceful and blessed years, and everyone will be a believer.  Evil will be taken away to the extent that children will play with snakes.  After his death Shaytan will be able to convince people to disobey and another cycle will start.  After that a smoke will come that when believers smell it they will die.  Only disbelievers will remain.  Then the Qur'an will be taken away as there are no Muslims.  After that the earth will be cursed, and the sky will fall apart.  Then the Day of Judgment will start.  There will be no believers on earth when this occurs.  A fire will appear in Yemen and it will be able to gather everyone to the place of the Day of Judgment, the land of Ash-Shaam.

Key Points in Understanding the Signs of the Hour

1. The signs of the Day of Judgment rely completely on authentic sources.  It is not accepted if from weak or fabricated hadith.

2. We must differentiate between direct textual evidence and the understanding of scholars.  For example, some say that the first sign will be power coming from the West.  This may or may not be true, but we cannot take this understanding for evidence.  Also the hadith with the wolf urinating in the Masjid does not state that it will be because of people running away, only that it will be unguarded.  The understanding of scholars helps us, but it is not evidence.

3. They do not have a specific order that we know of for sure, but we know some will come after others.

4. Abu Hurairah reported a hadith that the Prophet (S) said the signs will come one after the other, like beads following from a string.

5. The signs occur, we should not try to MAKE them occur. 

When you stop following the Shari'ah and start following other things, you get misguided.  People followed their dreams instead during the incident of Juhaymaan.  The Prophet (S) said Al-Mahdi will be from Aal Al-Bayt.  But this person was from the tribe of Al-Qahtaan from the east of Arabia.

There is a hadith where Al-Mahdi will leave Makkah to go to Madinah, and his friends will convince him to go back and then he will get victory.  The people with Al-Qahtaani took him from Makkah to Madinah, and half way turned back in an attempt to make this occur.

6. The Prophet (S) taught us signs to inform us what will occur, not to establish rulings.

We cannot establish rules form the signs.  For example, it does not mean that building tall buildings is haraam, or that it is OK for a woman to travel without a mahram.

7. Not all signs are condemnable actions.

8. We must understand these signs by their apparent meaning.

Some people said that Ad-Dajjaal is the internet.  Then what is the return of 'Isa, anti-virus?  They will say TV has one eye.  Others will say the false messiah is the US.  Others will say that when the Prophet (S) said a mountain of gold will appear in Iraq that it is oil.

This is incorrect, you cannot twist the meaning.  You have to keep it the way it was said.

9. No one can restrict the meaning of a sign to a specific incident.

You cannot say a lot of killing refers only to the killing in Iraq, or the landslide is the tsunami in Indonesia.

10. Many of these signs are unseen matters we may not understand fully.  We believe in what has been narrated, even if we don't know how they will happen.

11. Nor rules in Shari'ah are conditional to the appearance of any sign of the Day of Judgment.

Some Shi'is say that the real Qur'an will appear with the return of Al-Mahdi.  We do not believe such things.


We do not know if some details mentioned are metaphorical, for example people riding on horses.  It is also not important.

Some people treat the signs in a weird way.  One person said that Saddaam is the first lieutenant of Al-Mahdi and made up other stories.

Death and Life in Al-Barzakh

Al-Barzakh is the time between death and the Day of Judgment.

Death is a truth in which there is no doubt.  It is the first station of the Hereafter.  When someone dies, their Day of Judgment starts.

There is no thing people are more certain in than in death.  However, people in their actions behave as if they don't believe in death.

None of us can guarantee that we will live even another 10 minutes, no matter how old we are.  It is near to everyone of us.  Every day goes by you are a day closer to your death.  Every day your life is getting shorter.  150,000 people die every day.  Tobacco kills 13,500 a day, 4,926 due to diarrhea, 2,000 due to heart disease.

People naturally fear death.  The Prophet (S) said to remember often the destroyer of pleasures (death). (At-Tirmidhi)

A poll was done where Americans were asked what they fear the most.  Number one was public speaking, number two death.

Everyone shall taste the death. Then unto Us you shall be returned. (Qur'an 29:57)

No one can escape death.

Death is an Occurrence

Philosophers consider death to be the annihilator of life and soul.  In Islam death is an occurrence that happens to the soul, where you will move from one life to the other.

In this life, most of the enjoyment and suffering will be related to the body.  In the life in the grave it will be mainly related to the soul.  In the hereafter it will be equal between the two.

Who has created death and life, that He may test you which of you is best in deed. And He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving; (Qur'an 67:20)

Death is a creation of Allah.

Knowledge of death is specific to Allah alone

Even the angel of death does not know when you will die.

The Prophet (S) said that average people in this ummah will live between 60 and 70 years.  Few people will live more than that.  The average lifespan is reaching this nowadays.  Some scholars said that if you reach 40 then get ready, because what occurred before is greater than what is left in most cases.

In Oklahamo a Muslim woman came to visit her non-Muslim children from China and died the same night.  When she landed she looked up the masjid and said if she dies contact them they will take care of her because they are her brothers.  They had just gotten the permit for the cemetery two days earlier.  She was the first to be buried there.  Her family was so surprised that 400 brothers came to the funeral.  Her son found a du'a in Arabic that he didn't know the meaning that she always read.  He wanted them to read it at the burial.  It said that Allah save her children.  On the spot her son became Muslim.  When they went back to the masjid they found the daughter also became Muslim.  Allah accepted her du'a after she died.

You don't know when your time will come.  The shaykh showed a clip where a soccer player in a game just fell dead on the spot.

And no person can ever die except by Allah's Leave and at an appointed term. And whoever desires a reward in (this) world, We shall give him of it; and whoever desires a reward in the Hereafter, We shall give him thereof. And We shall reward the grateful (Qur'an 3:145)

The Prophet (S) said not to wish death, because that is when you will meet what you did.  Scholars said that you can only wish death in a few circumstances, such as when faced with a fitnah you know you cannot pass, or when shahadah is in front of you.

Al-Khaatimah (A Person's End)

The Prophet (S) said in a hadith related by Al-Hakim that whoever dies upon something, he will be resurrected upon it.  The shaykh showed a picture where a person is in sajdah and had died in that position.

This is called "husn al-khatimah", that someone dies while they are doing good.  You cannot make this happen, it is only by the Tawfeeq of Allah if he sees that you are sincere.

The Prophet (S) said whoever says La ilaha illah before dying will enter Jannah.

It is scary that people die while they are disobeying Allah.  They die when they are drunk, or while fornicating, or while listening to music.  A doctor in Canada had a patient who was dying of AIDS.  The person got AIDS by fornicating with his girlfriend.  He tried to tell the person to say La ilaha illah.  Finally the person said something, he said "I miss her so much".  He died with that being the last thing he said.

Another doctor a Muslim country said he witnessed at least 27 people die.  He told them all to say La ilaha illah, only one or two were able to do so.  This is because it requires sincerity.

A scholar said that if Allah knows that in your heart you always try to do good, he will end your life on good.  If in your heart you have evil or hypocrisy, it will end on bad.  This is when your sin will be exposed if you are then enemy of Shaytaan in public and his friend in private.



People think that after they pray istikharah, that a dream, angel or revelation will come to them. Actaully it means, that after you make a decision and then you ask Allah to bless that decision for you.

Example: Someone has to make a decision between 2 options. The person takes the precautions, analyzes both options, and makes decision based on limited capabilities. Then you pray to Allah (swt). Even if you make the decision and initially if it is not the right thing for you, Allah make it better for you.

Scholars say that you will not regret a decision if made on 2 things: Istikharah and Ishtisharah [consultation].

Du`aa' can cause things to change. When you are sick, you make du`aa' to Allah to take away sickness, or read Qur`an on the part that hurts, but also go to the doctor.

Tawakkul is a great act of worship. It is to practice the religion.

Another means: Sadaaqah. It will increase your wealth, and being good to your relatives will put barakah in your wealth. Asbaab are not just materialistic.

The Prophet (saw) said there is no contagious disease. In another hadith, the Prophet said escape from a lizard just as you would escape from a lion. In another hadith, The Prophet said to avoid vilages where there are disease.

In the first hadith, the Prophet's saying means that the disease happenned due to the will of Allah. Not all diseases need to be tranfserred. Don't look at it that it happeend by itself but happened because Allah allowed it to happen.

The 5th Principle: Free Will:

1. If Allah created everything and wills everything, then whatever happens it should be His responsibility not of the creation.

Solution: Allah created us with a brain. Inside of us, Allah created inside of us a will and determination. And after that Allah lets us decide how we want to use it. So our actions are created by Allah in an indirect way. Allah created everything and everything inside us, but we use these tools to do actions. So we are responsible for our own actions.

Ex. Shaykh walks into the store and buys a shotgun and kills people. Goes to the Judge and then says he's not responsible for killing, but the store that made the gun is responsible. That is not common sense. You cannot put the store responsible for your actions, because you used the gun the wrong way.

Same situation applies with Allah (swt). Allah created everything, but Allah doesn't force us to do anything He wants us to do.
Ex. Wearing hijaab - for a women, every second she spends wearing it for sake of Allah it is an act of worship. A woman is in a state of `ibaadah.

Only what you will happens because Allah willed it to happen.
If anyone claims about something that will happen in the akhirah, HOW do they know? Do they have access to the unseen or to the knoweldge of the unseen?

People say that if Allah has ordained everything, why should I have to work for Jannah?

The sahabah asked the Prophet, if everything is ordained then why do we do what we do? The Prophet said, Do what you have been asekd to do and every person will do what is according to their destiny.

The 6th Principle: at-Tawfeeq wal Khudhlaan

Khudhlaan - means to be left to oneself
Tawfeeq - Allah guides you
Hidayah - guidance

The moment you depend on yourself, you lose. THis is the strugle in this wolrd, it needs from yo a great connection from Allah.

Du`aa' made to Allah, not to be left alone to your own soul for even a blink of an eye, to rectify all our manners and asking for mercy.

Allah guides you when you're good and leaves you to yourself when you are not sincere. The only way Allah will leave you to yourself if you turn your back to Allah. Its up to you to choose, do you want the tawfeeq or the khudhlaan? Whoever finds good on the Day of Judgement should thank Allah. Whoever finds bad, should blame no one but himself.

Sometimes when we do small things, we don't know the huge impact it will have. Look at how many people read the adkhaar compild by Imam Nawawi, or how many people read Riyaadh as-Saliheen. Nobody expects how much greatness will come out of something. All this is from the tawfeeq of Allah swt.

Surah Maryam - Isa said "Allah made me blessed wherever I am"


Notes After Maghrib Prayer

Husn Al Khatimah

The good end of your life, the question will be "How a person can end his life with a good end?"

1. Alistiqamah - Steadfastness on the good path.

- Imam Ahmed's student "Everytime i see Imam Ahmed, he's better than the day before"

Allah (swt) said : "Whatever good you expect from me you will find"

2. At-Taqwa

3, Husn Adh-Dhann billah (Having good expectation of Allah)

4. As-Sidq

5. At-Tawbah

6. Remembering death and visiting cematary will always keep you on the straight path. Ibn Masu`d saw you

7. Avoiding the reasons which lead to soo' Al-Khatimah (The Bad End)

Signs of a Good ending:

Death in Madina
Death by fire
Death by plague
Sweating of the forehead
Death while fighting to protect
Calling to sunnah (for the right reason) and dying while doing that.
Death while gaurding the Muslim
Death while delivering a child
Death while doing a good deed
Death of a stomach disease.

Signs of Bad ending (Soo' Al-Khatimah):
Corrupt belief and practicing Innovations
Practicing sins and love of sins
Love of the dunya and expecting to live a long time.
Unlawful love and attachments.

Why is death so hard?
Because you've been in this dunya for so long, you're used to it, you have history with it, you're so attached to it. Your soul is so used to your body and it is so hard to separate from it.

When will the soul be taken, the person will know if he is among the people hell fire or the people of jannah.

The Grave (Al-Qabr)
THe Prophet (asws) said : 'Verily there a pressing that occurs in the grave, if anyone could be saved from it, then Sa`ad Ibn Mu`ath (rA) would have been' - why? 70,000 angels prayed at his janazah and made du`a' for him

Fitnat Al-Qabr
The Questions of the Angels
Who is your Lord? Believers: "My lord is Allah" NonBelievers "I heard people say Allah, etc"
Who is your Prophet?
What is your Religion?

They will be approached will be approached by 2 angels that are black and blue  - Munkar and Nakir (Mentioned in Qur'an 27:14)

Will these Q's be directed to soul and body?

Ibn Hzm said "soul only"
Other group "body only"
Majority "both"

Will these questions to ummat Muhammad only?

Qurobi - every ummah
Tirmidi ? - only our ummah

Will these questions be asked to believers or non-believers too?

The strongest opinion is that both will be asked as it is stated in a hadith.

Will the Prophets face these question?

Imam Ahmed : Once he said yes and once he said no - Allahu a`lam

What about children, insane, etc? (unaccountable)

One opinion is that yes they will be going to go thru the fitna because we have a funeral prayer for them

But the other group says it make no sense and we dont pray for them because of the fitna but because of the hardness of the grave, they will be alone in a dark place so we ask Allah (swt) to make it easy on them. Not because they will be asked (This is the stronger opinion)

Reward and punishment in the Grave:

- Reward and punishment in the grave for body and soul by mainly for the soul.
- Some groups said that the Qur'an doesnt mention punishment in the grave but that is absolutely wrong - Qur'an 40:45 proves that. The verse is very clear.

No one will enter paradise nor hellfire until the Day of Judgement.

The transgressors the angels will be stretching their hands to him/her and telling them "Today you will suffer your consequences!"

They will be punished twice! 1) Grave 2) Hellfire and for transgressors will suffer BEFORE the grave!

Examples for Grave reward - Will see where you wouldve been if you were in hellfire, then will see your place in jannah
- Light in the grave, wide grave
- Deep and comfortable sleep
- Green, cool, birds flying in paradise
- pray in grave
- bed
- special dress
- glad tidings of things that happen to their family
- Access to see the jannah, smell the fragrance of jannah

Examples of Grave punishment
- see their place in paradise but because
- tight grave, so that it breaks ribs
- smoke, heat from hellfire in grave
- beaten with a hammer (will scream from it)
- bed of fire

Can people see or be exposed to the punishment of the grave?
People can be but this is not the normal situation and it isn't something that becomes public.

Protection from punishment of the grave
Dying as a sheed
Surat Al-Mulk (67) - memorize and/or read it before going to sleep at night.
Dying of a disease of a stomach
plus the other things mentioned before

Why people get punished in the grave.
calling and supporting Bid`ah
commit major sins in the haram
breaking your fast before the maghrib time
kill animals or torture animals (no mercy)
Dont clean themselves properly after urinating

-- Sunday, Sept 9th, 2007 --

Reward and Punishment in the Grave

Where does the soul goes?

On the DOJ it will return to your body (consensus), but where until then?

Small group says  that body and soul die together, why? “Every soul will taste death” But mainstream muslim scholars say that soul is eternal and that they wil never perish

10 things will never perish:
1. Soul
2.  `arsh
3. Water
4. The kursi
5. Paradise
6. Hur al-`ayn
7. Lawh al-mahfuz
8. Al-qalam
(He didn’t say 9 & 10)

Allah (swt) said “don’t think that those who died as shaheed are dead, they are alive with their Lord”

The death of the soul is to leave the body but the idea that the soul doesn’t exist at all anymore then that is not acceptable.

Where will the soul be until the DOJ?

Several opinions:

Omar ibn alKhattab & Abu Hurayrah -  1) Souls are outside the gates of paradise
Imam Malik - didn’t catch it L
Imam Ahmed - Souls of believers are in paradise and disbelievers are in hellfire
Ibn Hazm - They are where they were before they got put in their bodies.

Qur’an 7:11 - We created all of you then we have given you a noble shape (of human being) then we told the angels to prostrate themselves before Adam.

Some scholars say that this is very clear that the soul takes the same shape as the body.

Mujahid Ibn Jabbar (best student of Ibn `Abass) - Souls of shuhada’ are in jannah and the rest of believers are around the grave for 7 days then around the jannah but never enter it.

What does it mean that the shuhada’s souls don’t die? Their souls are in green birds the frequent the rivers of jannah. .

Differences b/w shaheed & regular believer.

Shuhada’ - INSIDE a bird
Reg believer - soul in the shape of a bird

Shuhada’ - rest in the shadow of Allah’s thrown
Reg believer - rest in the trees in jannah

Some sinning believer’s souls will be in their grave and punished.

Some of the believer’s souls will be stopped at the gate of jannah because of debts.

The differences of opinions  complete one another  but do NOT contradict one another - that is why they're different.

Even though the body and soul arent together but there is a connection. How? Ibn Taymiyyah said - When you sleep, your soul leaves your body (clearly in surat al-sajdah) and if Allah (swt) wants you to wake up then he will return to your soul to your body. Hence there is a connection. Ex: If you had a bad dream and you woke up you're sweating even though your soul isn't in your body. So it happens that there's a connection during a minor death, what about the major death? Then Allah (swt) is capable of making the connection from that soul to that body.

The Resurrection

Muslims must believe that Allah will resurrect all the dead to their judgment.  The Qur'an and Sunnah are full of affirmations of the Resurrection and refutations of those that deny it.

Every single Prophet before told their people about the Resurrection.

They will say: "Ah! Woe unto us! Who hath raised us up from our beds of repose?"... (A voice will say:) "This is what (Allah) Most Gracious had promised. And true was the word of the messengers!" (Qur'an 36:52)

The Qur'an told us about Resurrection in three ways:

1. Directly stating that people will be resurrected

2. Observation - It tells people to look around you and see in nature that are signs of resurrection.

Then contemplate (O man!) the memorials of Allah's Mercy!- how He gives life to the earth after its death: verily the same will give life to the men who are dead: for He has power over all things. (Qur'an 30:50)

3. Affirming the Completeness of Allah's Knowledge, Power, and Wisdom.  These attributes are mentioned when discussing the Resurrection, because people deny the ability of Allah and ask how can people be resurrected after being dust and spread out.  They claim that it is impossible for Allah to know where all of the dust spread.  Mentioning these attributes refutes their arguments.

One disbeliever asked the Prophet (S) how can Allah resurrect people if they are dust.  Allah revealed the following ayahs:

Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah (mixed male and female discharge semen drops). Yet behold! He (stands forth) as an open opponent. And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: "Who will give life to these bones when they have rotted away and became dust?" Say: (O Muhammad SAW) "He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation!" He, Who produces for you fire out of the green tree, when behold! You kindle therewith. (Qur'an 36:77-80)

Allah created the bones from nothing originally, and can create them again from nothing.  He created fire from the opposite, the trees that have water in them.

Allah also affirms that He has not created us without a purpose. 19:66

We believe that the body and soul will be resurrected.

The Prophet (S) said that all humans will disintegrate except their tailbone, they were created from it and will be resurrected from it.

Allah will send rain and when it touches the earth anyone who is dead will come out exactly the same way Allah created him.

Positions of People towards Resurrection

1. Those who deny it.  They include the Pagan Arabs and Greek philosophers.

2. Those who deny the resurrection of the bodies (the vast majority of the philosophers, the Jews, and the Christians)

3. Reincarnation of souls.  Buddhists believe that pure souls reach Nirvana.  Others believe pure souls will merge with stars, and impure souls must return to another human for purification.  Others believe that pure souls are resurrected in a person of the same religion.

The Blowing of As-Soor

There are two opinions regard the meaning of As-Soor.  The vast majority of scholars said it is a Trumpet.

There are a few other opinions that are weak or rejected.  Some said it refers to bodies of the creation.

There are clear ahadith where the Prophet (S) mentions that the angel Israafeel has raised the Trumpet to his lips.

There are two ayahs that discuss the blowing of the Trumpet.

There are differences in opinion on how many times it will be blown.  The vast majority of scholars said three times, some said two, and one said four.

The first is Nafkhat Al-Faza', The Blow of Terror.  This signals the beginning of great changes that will occur to the world.  Only the worst people will witness this.  Remember that all of the believers will die with the smoke.  This is when the stars will fall, the seas will change to fire, and all of the other changes to the system of earth.

The second is Nafkhat Al-Sa'q, The Blow of Death.  All creation will die.

The third is Nafkhat Al-Qiyaam, The Blow of Resurrection.  All people will be resurrect from their graves.

The proof of this is in the following ayahs.

And (remember) the Day on which the Trumpet will be blown and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth, will be terrified except him whom Allah will (exempt). And all shall come to Him humbled. (Qur'an 27:87)

And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allah will. Then it will blown a second time and behold, they will be standing, looking on (waiting). (Qur'an 39:68)

There is also a hadith used by Al-Qurtubi that supports the position of two blows.  He merged the Blow of Terror and the Blow of Death into one.  He also used the second ayah above.

Other scholars said that the second verse does not have a proof of two, because the word used is "ukhraa" which means again.  Also, the hadith mentioned is weak.

At-Tabari used another weak hadith that mentioned three, exactly in the way above.

There is another opinion by one scholar (Al-Qaad'iyat) that the first will cause death, the second resurrection, the third will come when judgment is to begin and will cause everyone to fall in terror, and the fourth will cause them to stand again.

There is no proof that when Allah comes to judge people will faint because of the blowing of a trumpet.

The Prophet (S) said the duration between the two blows is 40.
  Abu Hurairah was asked if it meant days, years, months.  He refused to answer because he didn't know.  It shows the companions did not ask things that are not important, as they did not ask the Prophet (S) to clarify.  They were only concerned with what will help them on the Day of Judgment.  They were not after details that do not benefit people.

The Great Gathering

The Change in Earth

There is a hadith in Bukhari and Muslim where the Prophet (S) said people will be resurrected on a white land without marks.  He said it will be flat with very small stones.

One day the earth will be changed to a different earth, and so will be the heavens, and (men) will be marshalled forth, before Allah, the One, the Irresistible; (Qur'an 14:48)

Scholars asked if this meant the nature of the earth will be changed, or if the earth itself will be changed.  There are differences of opinion on this.

And when the earth is stretched forth, And has cast out all that was in it and became empty, (Qur'an 84:3-4)

Muddat in this verse means stretched, or also leveled.  It will be stretched so that everyone who has lived can be fit. 

It seems like the opinion where the nature of the earth will be changes is stronger.  Those who support it use the following ayah:

From the (earth) did We create you, and into it shall We return you, and from it shall We bring you out once again. (Qur'an 20:55)

Ibn 'Abbaas supported this opinion as well.

The hadith of the Prophet (S) said that Ash-Shaam is the land of the gathering.  How can such a small piece of land accommodate all humans and inn?  This is why Allah said "muddat".

Description of Gathering

People will be gathered in groups.

The Prophet (S) said they will be gathered naked.  'A'ishah asked how people will be naked and look at one another.  The Prophet (S) said that no one will be concerned or thinking about that.  People will only be concerned about surviving and passing the place.

The Prophet (S) said that if somebody dies, let them be buried with a white cloth because that is what they will be wearing when resurrected.

How can we reconcile these two? 

Al-Bayhaqee mentioned a few things.  There are other hadith that mention people will be dressed, that Ibrahim will be the first to be dressed.  So he said when you come of the grave you will be naked, then you will be dressed. 

He said the reverse is also possible, that you come out with the clothing and by the time you reach the gathering they will be gone.  The first seems stronger. 

There is a third opinion that the clothing means the deeds you used to do.  This is because in the Arabic language thawb also means deeds.  Thawb means what you wear, what you go back to use.  The deeds are called thawb because whatever you did you will meet in the day of judgment.  In this sense it is not acceptable, because it is a twist in meaning.

Gathering of the Disbelievers

The Day when they will come out of the graves quickly as racing to a goal, With their eyes lowered in fear and humility, ignominy covering them (all over)! That is the Day which they were promised! (Qur'an 70:43-44)

"Nusb" refers to a slaughterhouse in Arabic.  Imagine the look of an animal that is being taken to the slaughterhouse, its humiliation.  This is the look of the disbeliever going to the Gathering.

And he whom Allah guides, he is led aright; but he whom He sends astray for such you will find no Auliya' (helpers and protectors, etc.), besides Him, and We shall gather them together on the Day of Resurrection on their faces, blind, dumb and deaf, their abode will be Hell; whenever it abates, We shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire. (Qur'an 17:97)

The Prophet (S) said that the One who made them walk on their feet in this life will make the walk on their faces in the hereafter.
  This is because in this life they were upside down, on the opposite path of the truth.


Ibn 'Abbaas said they will not be gathered to be judged, but will be turned to dust.  Some scholars said we don't know if Ibn 'Abbaas said this, there is no chain of narration.

Others mention the hadith where the animals will be given their rights if one abused the other in this life.  Ibn Taymiyyah said they will be resurrected.

There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end. (Qur'an 6:38)

This ayah is used by those who support they will be gathered.

Others said that animals don't have intellect, so there is no need to judge.  They said the hadith is symbolic to show the justice of Allah.  They said that they will be gathered as in the ayah, but then they will be turned to dust.

The First to Be Gathered

There is a hadith reported by Muslim where the Prophet (S) said he will be the first to be resurrected.

The First to Be Dressed

Some scholars said that it will be Prophet Ibrahim, because the fire burned some of his clothing and he will be clothed first as a reward.

Others said that he will have the most fear of Allah on the Day of Judgment.  When someone is afraid, you cover them to calm them.

Gathered in Groups

This means the Christians will be gathered together, the Jews, together, the people of 'Aad, etc.  Every nation and every group of followers will be resurrected with their Prophet.  The believers of the nation will be on one side, the disbelievers on the other side separated.

And O ye in sin! Get ye apart this Day! (Qur'an 36:59)

One of the names of the Day of Judgment is "Yawma Al-Fasl", the Day of Separation.  The believers and disbelievers will no longer mingle as they did in this life.

Verily, the Day of Decision is a fixed time, The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds (groups); (Qur'an 78:17-18)

Description of People in the Gathering

There are people who have a long neck, those who used to make Adhaan.

Some people will come and will be the size of small ants.  They will be trampled by everyone.  They are the arrogant people.

A person will have a long flag coming up from their bottom.  This is the one who betrayed the leader.

Those who stole war booty will be resurrected with it on their shoulders (3:161).

Somebody will be seen running with the snake running after him.  This is the one who had money and did not give zakaah on it.  The money will come in the shape of the snake.

The Prophet (S) said his ummah will come with shining foreheads, hands, and feet because of wudu'.

Some people will have shade above them wherever they go.  They are the ones who give charity.

Others will have two clouds or two birds stretching their wings over them.  They are the ones who memorized Al-Baqarah and Ali 'Imraan.

The ones who beg even though they have enough money to survive will be resurrected without flesh on their faces.

Jabir (R) reported that the Prophet (S) said: "Every slave (of Allah) shall be resurrected upon that which he died upon." (Muslim)

Say (O Muhammad SAW): My Lord has commanded justice and (said) that you should face Him only (i.e. worship none but Allah and face the Qiblah, i.e. the Ka'bah at Makkah during prayers) in each and every place of worship, in prayers (and not to face other false deities and idols), and invoke Him only making your religion sincere to Him by not joining in worship any partner to Him and with the intention that you are doing your deeds for Allah's sake only. As He brought you (into being) in the beginning, so shall you be brought into being (on the Day of Resurrection) [in two groups, one as a blessed one (believers), and the other as a wretched one (disbelievers)]. (Qur'an 7:29)

The Standing: Awaiting Judgment

Imagine standing for 50,000 years on the Day of Judgment waiting for judgment to start.  Compare it to when you are stuck in traffic in one spot for 40 minutes and how hard that is.  The standing will be so difficult for people unless they are believers.  No one will speak out of respect for Allah.

And you will see each nation humbled to their knees (kneeling), each nation will be called to its Record (of deeds). This Day you shall be recompensed for what you used to do. (Qur'an 45:28)

Everyone will be judged according to their deeds on this day.

(From) the Lord of the heavens and the earth, and whatsoever is in between them, the Most Beneficent, none can dare to speak with Him (on the Day of Resurrection except after His Leave). The Day that Ar-Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel) or another angel] and the angels will stand forth in rows, none shall speak except him whom the Most Beneficent (Allah) allows, and he will speak what is right. That is without doubt the True Day, so, whosoever wills, let him seek a place with (or a way to) His Lord (by obeying Him in this worldly life)! (Qur'an 78:37-39)

Allah is telling us to make sure that we get ready for this day.

On the Day when some faces will be (lit up with) white, and some faces will be (in the gloom of) black: To those whose faces will be black, (will be said): "Did ye reject Faith after accepting it? Taste then the penalty for rejecting Faith." And for those whose faces will become white, they will be in Allah's Mercy (Paradise), therein they shall dwell forever. (Qur'an 3:106-107)

People will see those they recognize, their family members, their friends.  However, everyone will be running away from them.

That Day shall a man flee from his brother, And from his mother and his father, And from his wife and his children. Every man, that Day, will have enough to make him careless of others. (Qur'an 80:34-37)

Today you are willing to do anything to save your children, you have so much love for your wife or parents.  On that Day every human will run away from their own relatives, their daughters, their spouses.  They will be saying "nafsee" (myself).  Even the Prophets will be saying this, everyone will be caring only about themselves this day.

Even Maryam will ask 'Isa, and he will say he can't help her on this day.  This is mentioned in a hadith.

There is a weak hadith which the scholars said is acceptable that mentions three places where no one will think of anyone else.  When they are gathered for judgment, when their deeds are weighed and they are given the book, and when they try to cross the Siraat.

The Prophet (S) said the sun will be so close to the earth.  People will be sweating according to their deeds, some not at all, some up to their knees, some up to their necks.

Shade of Allah

As mentioned in hadith of Jabir there are seven who will have the Shade of Allah:
1. A young man brought up in worship of Allah.
2. A just ruler.
3. A person who donates in secrecy or so much, to the extent the left hand will not know what the right is giving.
4. One who has love for the masjid.
5. Two people who love each other for the sake of Allah.
6. A person who remembers Allah in private and sheds tears.
7. A man who is seduced by beautiful woman and does not fall into it because of fear of Allah.

The scholars collected over 90 types of people that will have the Shade of Allah from ahadith.

Length of the Day

How long will the day be?

And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allah fails not His Promise. And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon. (Qur'an 22:47)

He arranges (every) affair from the heavens to the earth, then it (affair) will go up to Him, in one Day, the space whereof is a thousand years of your reckoning (i.e. reckoning of our present world's time). (Qur'an 32:5)

The angels and the Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years, (Qur'an 70:4)

Will it be 1000 or 50,000?  Ibn 'Abbaas said it is 1000 years for the belivers and 50,000 for the disbelievers.  There is no authentic chain of narration for this.  Others said 1000 refers to the days in which Allah created the heavens and earth, and 50,000 will be the Last Day.

Most of the mufassireen said that it will be 50,000.

What will Occur?

1. Allah (swt) will come.

And thy Lord cometh, and His angels, rank upon rank, (Qur'an 89:22)

Some innovators said Allah will not come, His angels will come to judge.  The power of these verses lose their effect when people twist the meaning.

And the angels will be on its sides, and eight angels will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them. (Qur'an 69:17)

In this moment people will faint.  Then they will be woken up.  The Prophet (S) said he will be the first to wake up, but he will see Musaa is already awake.

2. The Paradise and Hellfire will be brought

And Hell will be brought near that Day. On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance (then) avail him? (Qur'an 89:23)

The Prophet (S) said hellfire will be pulled with 70,000 ropes each pulled with 70,000 angels.

Jannah will also be brought.  It is prepared for those who have taqwa and guarded their senses and bodies from doing haram.

And Paradise will be brought near to the Muttaqun not far off. (Qur'an 51:31)

3. Intercession will occur.

People will be tired of waiting, and they will go to Prophet Adam for intercession just to start the Day of Judgment.  He said he committed a sin.  They will go to Nuh, Ibrahim, Musaa, and 'Isaa.  All will say they cannot do so.  They will go to Prophet Muhammad (S) who will say he will do so, with the permission of Allah.  He will go to the throne of Allah and prostrate himself.  Allah will teach him at that moment certain supplications, and he will praise Allah with them.  Then Allah will tell him to raise his head.  Allah will say to him to ask and he will be given.  On that Day everyone will only be thinking of themselves.  The Prophet (S) will think of humanity and will ask that the Judgment begin.  This is the highest level of intercession a human reaches.

There are different types of intercession that will occur.  This is the first type. 

Another intercession will occur when the Prophet (S) will intercede on behalf of his uncle to reduce his punishment.  This is the only intercession for a non-Muslim that was accepted.

Another intercession is for only the Prophet (S), that he will be the one who asks Allah to open the gates of Paradise for the believers.

Other intercession is for different types of creation, including righteous people, deeds, or angels.  There are three types of this:

A. A person will be taken to the hellfire but a Surah Mulk will come and intercede on his behalf. 

B. Another intercession will be when good deeds, angels, or others can come after a person falls into hellfire and they will be taken out. 

C. Another intercession is after people are in Paradise already, when a family person will be raised to the level of other family members, for example if your spouse is higher you will be raised to their level.

Logically another intercession can exist, but there is no proof for it.  This is where a person in hellfire can have their punishment reduced.  There is no daleel for this.

Who can intercede in these ways?
- The Prophet (S)
- The Messengers
- The Angels
- The Martyrs
- Children who pass away
- Believers to one another
- The Qur'an

What prevents intercession of the Prophet (S)? (from hadith)
- The one who memorizes the Qur'an but is extreme in their views.  (Scholars said this also applies to innovators because all innovators are extreme.)
- The unjust rulers.

In another hadith reported by Muslim, those who die in Madinah will have the intercession of the Prophet (S).

4. Judgment and placing of Balances and passing out of books.

5. Approaching the pool

These last two we will discuss in detail.

The Judgment

The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the kingdom this Day? (Allah Himself will reply to His Question): It is Allah's the One, the Irresistible! (Qur'an 40:16)

And they all shall appear before Allah (on the Day of Resurrection) then the weak will say to those who were arrogant (chiefs): "Verily, we were following you; can you avail us anything from Allah's Torment?" They will say: "Had Allah guided us, we would have guided you. It makes no difference to us (now) whether we rage, or bear (these torments) with patience, there is no place of refuge for us." (Qur'an 14:21)

That Day shall you be brought to Judgement, not a secret of you will be hidden. (Qur'an 69:18)

The Prophet (S) said that people will be brought before Allah three times.
  I didn't get the details!

Books Given Out

People will be shown their records and asked about their deeds.  Allah will give every human and jinn a book that has everything written it.  You will come to Allah carrying your books.

And We have fastened every man's deeds to his neck, and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall bring out for him a book which he will find wide open. (It will be said to him): "Read your book. You yourself are sufficient as a reckoner against you this Day." (Qur'an 17:13-14)

Scholars said that each day in your life has a page in the book.  What you have done will be recorded in great detail.

And the Book (of Deeds) will be placed (before you); and thou wilt see the sinful in great terror because of what is (recorded) therein; they will say, "Ah! woe to us! what a Book is this! It leaves out nothing small or great, but takes account thereof!" They will find all that they did, placed before them: And not one will thy Lord treat with injustice. (Qur'an 18:49)

Some novelists are good writers and they give you so much detail as if you are watching it.  The Book of Deeds will be in even greater detail, and you will see everything you did, even what you forgot.

On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) and inform them of what they did. Allah has kept account of it, while they have forgotten it. And Allah is Witness over all things. (Qur'an 58:6)

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about the ayahs below that everyone will be brought by themselves, and even every single breath will be written in the book.

Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender). (Qur'an 19:94-95)

Some people ask why should it be written in a book?  It shows the power of Allah that everything can be documented.  Also, humans like to argue, and if it is documented then you can't argue.

'A'ishah (R) said happiness to those who find a lot of istighfaar in their books.

Believers will admit their mistakes, and Allah will accept from them.  Then you will be given your books.

Some scholars said that the Book of Deeds will be given to your right hand if you are saved, and in your left if otherwise.  Others said no, the book you will be given in your left or right hand is just a book that tells your destination.

Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand will say: "Take, read my Record! "Surely, I did believe that I shall meet my Account!" (Qur'an 69:19-20)

But as for him who will be given his Record in his left hand, will say: "I wish that I had not been given my Record! (Qur'an 69:25)

But whosoever is given his Record behind his back, (Qur'an 84:10)

There is another verse that the Book will be given behind the back.  Does this mean there are three categories?  The correct opinion is that of the majority, that the Mu'min will get it from the front in the right hand, and the wrongdoer behind their back in their left hand a form of humiliation.

Asked About Deeds

That Allah may requite each person according to what he has earned. Truly, Allah is Swift at reckoning. (Qur'an 14:51)

But stop them, verily they are to be questioned. (Qur'an 37:24)

These verses show that Allah will judge and question everybody.

Then surely, We shall question those (people) to whom it (the Book) was sent and verily, We shall question the Messengers. (Qur'an 7:6)

The messengers and their people will be asked, so everyone will be asked.

The Prophet (S) said every son of Adam will be asked about four things before passing.

This evidence makes it clear that everybody will be asked

So on that Day no question will be asked of man or jinn as to his sin, (because they have already been known from their faces either white or black). (Qur'an 55:39)

This verse says that no wrongdoers will be asked about their deeds.  In other verses it is said that Allah will not talk to the wrongdoers.

He said: "This has been given to me because of a certain knowledge which I have." Did he not know that Allah had destroyed, before him, (whole) generations,- which were superior to him in strength and greater in the amount (of riches) they had collected? but the wicked are not called (immediately) to account for their sins. (Qur'an 28:78)

As for those who sell the faith they owe to Allah and their own plighted word for a small price, they shall have no portion in the Hereafter: Nor will Allah (Deign to) speak to them or look at them on the Day of Judgment, nor will He cleans them (of sin): They shall have a grievous penalty. (Qur'an 3:77)

In a hadith the Prophet (S) said 70,000 people from this ummah will enter Jannah without being questioned.

Scholars said that believers and disbelievers are at different levels.  The best of the believers will go to Paradise without being questioned.  They will go straight as a reward.  They are exceptions to the general rule of questioning.

From the disbelievers, there are the worst whose end is already known such as Iblis and Pharaoh who will go straight to hellfire.  Also in a hadith, hellfire will take those who are arrogant.

The vast majority are in the middle and will be questioned.

People will be questioned in different ways.  The believers will be questioned in silent, and no one can see or observe it.  They will be shown their mistakes and sins, and they will admit it.  Allah will not expose them, and will say as I have hidden them in the dunya, I will in the hereafter.  Then they will be admitted to Paradise.

Others Allah will expose them.  Those who did good deeds only for people to see them or hear about it will be exposed on the Day of Judgment.  Allah will let others see their sins.  They will be taken to the hellfire.

Soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning, (Qur'an 84:8)

Those who join together those things which Allah hath commanded to be joined, hold their Lord in awe, and fear the terrible reckoning; (Qur'an 13:21)

Some people's judgment will be very light.  Others their questioning will be so hard.  Those who had a lot of money will go through more questioning because they have more money to account for, how they earned it and how they spent it.  Ibn Al-Qayyim said that the misers are losers, they live in dunya like poor people and in the akhirah they will be judged like rich people.

First One to be Judged

The Prophet (S) said we are the last nation but the first to be judged.

The Prophet (S) said that we will be asked about prayer first.  The first action having to do with humans to be judged is killing.

There are three types of records that will be judged.

The first is major shirk.  This will never be forgiven.  Scholars debate over minor shirk, most say you will be punished for it in the hereafter.

The second is what is between you and Allah.  These will be judged based on forgiveness, Allah will forgive as much as he wishes.  The Prophet (S) said if you come with a great amount of sins but without shirk, Allah can forgive all of it and not care.  If you don't have shirk Allah can give you forgiveness as much as your bad deeds.

The third is what is between you and other humans.  This is something that Allah will not forgive and let go.  It is between you and that person on that Day.  This is why you should never come on the Day of Judgment having abused a person.

So from the first category, we will asked abut Tawheed first.  From the second, prayer.  From the third, killing will be the first.

Abusing humans is very dangerous.  Even abusing animals is dangerous.  A woman was sent to hellfire because she abused a cat.

Tawheed is the best you can come with, prayer is the best action, and with other people the best you can do is come with good manners towards others.

Witnesses on Judgment Day

This Day, We shall seal up their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their legs will bear witness to what they used to earn. (Qur'an 36:65)

1. Body Parts

Use your hands to make dhikr because they will come as a witness on the Day of Judgment.

2. The Earth (ground)

When you make adhaan the Earth will be a witness for it.

3. The Messengers

They will witness against the people to whom they delivered the message.  'Isa will come and say that he never said to worship him:

And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): "O 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: 'Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah?' " He will say: "Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner-­self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly, You, only You, are the All-­Knower of all that is hidden and unseen. (Qur'an 5:116)

The Balance: Weighing Deeds

And the weighing on that day (Day of Resurrection) will be the true (weighing). So as for those whose scale (of good deeds) will be heavy, they will be the successful (by entering Paradise). And as for those whose scale will be light, they are those who will lose their ownselves (by entering Hell) because they denied and rejected Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). (Qur'an 7:8-9)

Believing in this is from the beliefs of Ahl Al-Sunnah.  Denying it was only done by innovators such as Al-Khawaarij and Mu'taizilites.

The Wisdom for it

It proves to you with your own eyes the amount of good deeds you have compared to bad deeds.

It shows his power that everything is in front of you.

You know that good deeds are worth ten, and you can see it this Day and see Allah's generosity and mercy.

When will it be done?

Al-Qurtubi said that it will be the last thing, and will be done after the Siraat.  This does not make sense, because if someone has bad deeds they will not be able to cross the Siraat.

Al-Burdeesee and others said that it will come after Allah judges you.


Many scholars said that the balance will have two sides and will have a tongue that will speak.  There is no hadith for tongue, but Ibn Abbaas said it and he was not known for taking things from other than the Prophet (S).  As for the two sides, it is clear from the ayah.

There is a hadith where a person will have so many bad deeds that he can't see the end, such that he thought he was ruined.  Then Tawheed was brought and it outweighed all of it.

The goodness of Tawheed is a light that nothing can hide.  Make sure that when you meet Allah you will do so without any shirk.

What will be weighed

The deeds and statements will be weighed.  Some people based on some narrations said that people will also be weighed.

We don't know how things will be weighed, for example how recitation of Qur'an will be weighed.  Some people said they will be transformed into something physical, but there is no evidence of it.

The Prophet (S) said that there are two words that are very easy to say and have a lot of weight on the scale: Subhana Allahi wa Bihamdih, Subhana Allahi Al-Azheem.

If you repent from a sin they will have no weight on the balance.  In fact, they will become good deeds:

Except those who repent and believe (in Islamic Monotheism), and do righteous deeds, for those, Allah will change their sins into good deeds, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Qur'an 25:70)

Most scholars said it will happen in the moment of balance, when it will be transferred from one side to the other.

What About Non-Muslims?

There is a difference of opinion on whether deeds will be weighed.  Ibn Taymiyyah said no because of the following ayah:

And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust. (Qur'an 25:23)

This is because they have no good deeds, because the reward for all of them in the dunya.  This is the opinion of most scholars.

Others said they will be weighed, but their good deeds will weigh nothing because of the following ayahs:

Then, those whose scales (of good deeds) are heavy, - these, they are the successful. And those whose scales (of good deeds) are light, they are those who lose their ownselves, in Hell will they abide. (Qur'an 23:102-103)

The first opinion seems stronger.

How will it work?

The majority of scholars said whichever side is heavier will decide the destination, if good is heavier they will go to Paradise.

One Scale or Many?

Some ayahs said one scale, others say scales as plural.  Al-Hasan Al-Basri said there is one for each nation.  Others said one for each person.

The stronger and majority opinion is that there is one.  When Allah says (mawaazeen) it is to show justice.

What can make the good side heavy?

1. Tawheed
2. Husn Al-Khuluq - Good manners
3. The words mentioned in the hadith previously
4. In another hadith the word Alhamdulillah
5. Saying after each Salah saying ten times Subhana Allah, Alhamdul Lillah, and Allahu Akbar
6. Also when you do the above before going to bed
7. The Prophet (S) said whoever helps his Muslim brother in a hadith


Hadith about Al Hawd is narrated in several narrations, Ibn Hajar compiled over 80 narrations. Ahl Sunnah believe that is an honor granted by Allah swt to the Prophet (S). All the people of his nation will approach the Hawd and drink from it and never be thirsty again.

Al Khawaarij, al Mutazilah and Al Jahmiyyah deny the existnece of al Hawd.

The hadith narrates that a river from paradise, specifically Al-Kawthar, will bring water to the Hawd.

The Prophet saw told us that the length and width of the pool are equal, so it is a square. The distance is how long it takes to travel a whole month. In another narration, the Prophet said the distance is from Ilyaa to Makkah from Sanaa. Since we have narrations from over 80 companions, there are different answers about the length. The Prophet gave different answers to the companions to give them a clear picture so that each can understand the size.  They were not familiar with the same places, so some new where Yemen is, others Shaam, etc.  It is not to give a precise size but an idea of how big it is, like someone saying something is the size of Texas.  Ibn Hajar, Imam Nawawii and Ibn Taymiyyah agree with this.

Whoever drinks from this pool, the Prophet said that it is more pure then milk and smells like musk and sweeter then honey. It is cooler then ice. Imagine after people have been standing and waiting for the Day of Judgement, the relief this pool will bring. Some say the pool will be available after the judgement for the person.

Some scholars say it will be after crossing the bridge over hellfire since the Prophet said whoever drinks from the pool will never be thirsty, meaning they will not enter hellfire. Since some Muslims will fall off the bridge, and all Muslims drink from it, this is the weak opinion.

Some who will approach the pool after the judgment, the angels will push them away. Ibn Hajr said that if someone drinks from the pool, he might enter the hellfire, but he will not suffer from thirst in the hellfire. Being saved from thirst does not prevent you from punishment in the hellfire. This is also the opinion of Imam Nawawwi and Imam Qurtubi. The sequence is such that the pool will be before the siraat. Shaykh Waleed agrees with this opinion.

The Prophet saw also said that the innovators will be prevented from drinking from the Hawd.
This opinion is prominent according to the Malikiyyah.

Ibn Hajr said the pool is only for Prophet Muhammad saw and his nation. This is not generally accepted by the scholars before Ibn Hajr. Common opinion that every nation and Prophet will hve their own pool.

Tirmidhi narrated hadith that the Prophet said each Prophet will have his own pool but my pool will be the greatest. Tirmidhi said that this is ghareeb (meaning weak in his terminology).

Ibn Umar also has another hadith narrated by Tabarani but this is also a weak hadith. The only proof we have is the authentic hadith reported by Muslim, the Prophet said "I will be looking after my pool." Which means it seems like there are other pools belonging to other Prophets. Indirect way of saying other pools.


Linguistically means the clear, straight path.
Technically means the bridge placed over hellfire over which Muslims will pass to enter Jannah.

Ahl Sunnah believe that there will be a Siraat drawn over Jahannam. The people will across over it according to their deeds.

There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell); this is with your Lord; a Decree which must be accomplished. Then We shall save those who use to fear Allah and were dutiful to Him. And We shall leave the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers, etc.) therein (humbled) to their knees (in Hell). (Qur'an 19:71-72)

Allah swt says in Surah Maryam: Everyone of you will approach the hellfire by crossing over the bridge. Some will fall in and never come out, others will come out after being purified. Scholars say that this verse indicates there will be a siraat. Also:

"Instead of Allah, and lead them on to the way of flaming Fire (Hell); (Qur'an 37:23)

Aysha (ra) narrated Hadith from Prophet about the Siraat being as thin as a hair and sharp. Ali (ra) narrates the siraat will be slippery.

(For) the sinners will be known by their marks: and they will be seized by their forelocks and their feet. (Qur'an 55:41)

Ayaat about people being pushed into hellfire, about the disbelievers. The Prophet said the percentage of people saved from the hellfire is only 1/1000. The sahabah asked if they had a chance and the Prophet said this percentage was skewed by the people of Ya`jooj wa Ma`jooj.  There are so many and they are children of Adam.

The people who will be saved from the hellfire is the mentally insane, and the people that never heard of the message. Allah (swt) will tell these people that He will send them a messenger and see how they respond. Allah will send these people a messenger and the messenger will ask these people to jump into hellfire. It is a hard test, but these people have seen Allah (swt) and seen hellfire. Imam Qurtubi debates whether this hadith is authentic, since he says there is no takleef on the day of Judgement. However this hadith is authentic.

Scholars have different opinions. Some say Allah will judge those people based on His knowledge, if those people were not mentally insane or were given information about Islam. However this opinion is not necessary since the other opnion is authentic.

The Prophet said some people will cross the siraat like a flash of light, in a blink of an eye, or like a strong wind. Some of them will cross at the speed of horses, or at the speed of camels. Some will be running, some will be walking. Some will crawling and others will be falling into the hellfire and crawling back up. Some will fall into the hellfire and not make it. Everyone will cross according to their deeds. The hellfire will be asking for more people.

Another hadith, people will cross according to their deeds and will have a light.

57:12 -13

Hadith reported by Al-Hakim, Some people will have large light while others will have a small light showing only up to their toes. The light will be according to the faith of a person. The hyporcites will have no light and so they will be running after the believers.

The first ummah that will approach the bridge is the Ummah of the Prophet saw. ibn Abbas said that when other nations will watch the ummah of Muhammad marching behind their Prophet, the nations will say that the people will look like kings. People will approach Allah swt in Jannah as if they are a delegation.

Al- Qantarah

After crossing the Siraat there is another bridge to be crossed. Al Qantarah is a small arched bridge. People will be stopped and purified because of the injustices they committed to people like their neighbors, families, inlaws, co-workers etc. People will ask for their retribution, and ask Allah for their rights from the person. Since the person has nothing at the time, Allah will take away the persons good deeds. When the good deeds are finished then the person will be given the others bad deeds. Then the person will be returned into the hellfire to be purified. After passing all the tests, because of all the wrong he did against others this person will be such a loser.

Don't ever come to Allah swt with two things: 1. Committing shirk and 2. Committing wrong against others. It is very hard to practice but will be much harder on the Day of Judgement.

Hadith narrated by Imam Ahmad and Hibaan. A man will come to the Prophet and tell him that a person abused him and did bad things to him and ask to take from his good deeds. Allah swt will tell the person to raise your head and look in front of you at Paradise. Allah will show the person great things, and the person will like it. Allah will ask the person if he knows who its for. THe person will say do you know who its for? The person said it must be for someone who did so many great things. Allah will tell the person that this is for you if you forgive your brother. The person will forgive the other and take him by his hand into Jannah.

Everyone will be purified before entering into Jannah from the feelings of jealousy in their hearts.

Al- `Araf

1. A high place from where you can
(4 points listed in notebook)

THe goal for the muslim - to save yourself from the hellfire and to enter jannah. Goal = your life makes sense. Imagine you played basketball or soccer ball without a goal? how boring is this?! One thing about your goals, if they are small, they're easy but if they're big goals your hand will not cover it, the only thing that will block you from this goal is if you close your eyes. Allah (swt) makes the goal huge, so you can't miss it.

That's what im waiting for, to put my foot in jannah. When the believers gather around the gates of jannah, they will find it close. Muhammad (asws) will knock on the gate and the angels will open only for him. He will be the first to enter, his ummah will be the first to enter and this is another quality from this ummah. Brothers and sisters, jannah is real. It's not metaphorical, its' real.

Musa (as) asked what the lowest level of jannah - the last person to enter jannah and he keeps asking to get closer to jannah. (hadith from sahih bukhari) If this is the lowest level, then what is the highest level? It is something unheard of and something that our language can't describe.

Paradise has 8 gates. Prophet Muhammad (asws) said: people will come from 8 gates and Abu Bakr (as) wants to have the highest choice,

The widest gate in jannah is for those who obey their parents.
There are prayer gates, students of knowledge, etc.

Ar-Rayyan those who perfect their fast in Ramadan - after the fasters go thru it, ti willbe closed, no one else - unlike other gates where others can enter after the main people of that gate enter.

- Fasting is the only deed that can not be taken from you.

Ahl-As- Sunnah wal-Jama`ah believe that paradise will be forever but there is a difference of opinion on hellfire.
- Quran 11:26

One opinion - people of tawhid will be taken out, it will stay awhile and then it will vanish
2nd opinion (majority) - hellfire is eternal and will never perish.
Proof of these opinions:
Opinion 2 - Qur'an 43:75 - The punishment of hellfire will never be lightened. Also, Quran 78:30, Quran 2:167, Qur'an 35:36.
Opinion 1 - Qur'an 6:128 - Hellfire will be your destiny, living in it forever except as Allah (swt) may will. Also, Quran 11:106-107, Qur'an 28: "for ages" but not forever.

No matter how long they are in the hellfire it will come a day, and hellfire will stop (Ibn Mas`ud + 6-7 other sahabahs) because thats what His mercy leads to. But that doesnt mean that they will enter jannah.

Every single verse that the 2nd group used doesn't contradict the 1st group's verses.

No one will go to hellfire without Allah's justice, and not one will enter paradise without Allah's mercy.


Seeing Allah (swt) in paradise

1) Non-Muslims - none of them will ever will see him
2) Muslims + Hypocrites will see Allah (swt) - Ibn-Khuzaimah/Abee Ya'la.
3) Kuffar will see Allah but it will not be a form of reward, like a criminal to see a judge, not an honor. - Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn ul-Qayyim, Hasan ibn Saalim, Abu Sahl At-Tasturee's opinion.

That extra thing you will be seeing in paradise

Will women see Allah (swt)?

Ibn Tayymiyah - He refuted the opinion that women can't see Allah (swt). There is a very clear hadith and replace a hadith that is very weak.
"All believers will see Allah"

2) The hadith didn't suggest at all that the sisters didn't see Allah but that the sisters just commented.

3) The family doesnt refer to the women believers but refers to servents, hur al-`ayn, etc. but not female believers.

When believers see the Allah (swt) they will have their heads raised, do not complicate the "he will not be in any direction" hadith.

Can Allah (swt) be seen in dreams?
Yes, but not as a physical form. Light, behind clouds, etc. but not physical and if it's false then it's not Allah (swt).

Important Principles:

(from the notes)

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